The Erne Packet. Enniskillen, August 28 1817.

The Erne Packet. Enniskillen, August 28 1817.

Irish Manufacture.—On Tuesday last, three men and a woman were committed to Wexford goal, by A. H. Jacob, who were detected by that active Magistrate, in the neighbourhood of Enniscorthy, in the act of manufacturing leaves of alder, birch, &c. so as to resemble the various kinds of tea imported from China. About two hundred weight of this deleterious article, together with the sheets and blankets used in the process of drying, were lodged in the Custom-house stores.— Wexford Herald.

MOST IMPORTANT. It has long been a desirable object with the Public to have the Currency of the two Countries assimilated. We understand that the thing is effected by the most simple process. The Bank of England has agreed to receive the Notes of the Bank of Ireland the same as their own. To illustrate this subject it is only necessary to state, that a Merchant in Dublin, instead of paying 10 per Cent, for a Bill to meet his engagement in London, may transmit Irish Notes and they will be received as British Currency. It may be a “wonder of nine days,” but Ireland reaps the advantage,—it raises her property 10 per cent, in price, in the great market of the world, and if it be true, as we are confident it is, to owe to the present Minister, on this account alone, more than to all their predecessors since the Revolution. We do not choose at this time, to enter into any particular discussion of the matter. We merely announce the circumstance, and it admits a conclusion of the largest import, which we shall soon fully explain. —Dublin Journal.

HARVEST WEATHER, &.

LIMERICK, AUGUST 23. NEW WHEAT.—Unfavourable as the past rainy weather must have been towards the maturity of all Irish grain we felt pleasure in seeing, at this day’s market new red wheat, of prime quality. — It belonged to Mr. William Watson, near Nenagh, and is enough to shew agriculturists what may be expected from an Irish soil, when properly cultivated, and the seed thereof seasonably deposited. —Chronicle.

A barrel of new oats, reaped fifteen days since, the property of A. French St. George, Esq. appeared in Galway Market, on the 12th inst.

A Cup potatoe, weighing nearly one pound three quarters, was grown at Whitehall, North Liberty of Limerick, the seat of Joseph E. Vize, Esq. It is a very extraordinary natural production at this early period—the stalk was quite green, and would therefore be much larger if left in the ground.

BELFAST, AUGUST 23. Yesterday, an unusual quantity of Oatmeal was brought to market—probably about 150 bags, and little disposition evinced to purchase so that a great quantity remained unsold. The prices were from 23s. to 24s. 6d. per cwt. There was also so large supply of Potatoes, that the market was crowded to excess. They were generally of an excellent quality, and sold for 3½d. to 5d. per stone.

Yesterday Mr. Younghusband commenced reaping a large field of Potatoe Oats, at his house at Ballydrain, near this town. The Oats appear extremely fine, and unusually productive. Another field of Oats, near the old Race Course, between this town and Lisburn, is already partly cut down.

DROGHEDA. AUG. 21. Most of the Liverpool and Preston traders have arrived this week. The markets are in this town most plentifully supplied. Beef and Mutton from 5d. to 6d. per pound. Potatoes, best quality, 7d. per 211b.  Bread, from American flour, 41b. in the Shilling Loaf.—We are happy to state that trade in the above ports is reviving, and business assuming an animated appearance.

The heavy rains that fell last, and beginning of this week, lodged several fields of luxuriant corn, but very little if any injury, we hear has been sustained. The cold winds from the N. and W. that prevailed for some weeks, has shifted to the, S. E, and the temperature of the atmosphere is more genial. Though the sun is partially obscured, the wheats and oats are fast arriving at maturity, and a few weeks will bring in abundance of new corn. Potatoes are at 5d. 6d. and 7d. per stone. Very little grain appeared in the corn market for some weeks and the prices nearly nominal. Our linen market has been brisk for the last fortnight and extensive purchases made for England.

WINDOW LIGHT TAX. A Vestry was held in the Parish of St Michan, Dublin, on last Wednesday week, for the purpose of preparing represent a representation to Mr. Vansittart upon the subject of the Window Tax.

At one o’clock, the Churchwardens took the Chair, and Mr. Wm. Smith immediately rose, and after observing that the subject upon which the Household were assembled, had so recently engaged the attention, as well as that of all the Parishes in the City, and was so generally and well understood, that he felt it would not be necessary form to occupy the time of the meeting by dwelling upon it—proposed a resolution for the appointment of a Committee to wait upon Mr. Vansittart with an address upon the subject of the Window Tax. This mot was immediately carried and the Committee appointed.

Mr. Smith then produced the draft of an Address to Vansittart congratulating the Right Hon. Gentleman on his arrival in this country— complimenting him upon the motives of his journey—representing the distressed state of the Parish of Saint Michan, in which one half of the houses, (amounting in the whole to near 2,000 houses were either shut up, or inhabited by persons unable to pay rent or taxes—in which 12,000 individuals out of a population of 22,000, were reduced from competence, in many cases from affluence, to poverty—and declaring the utter inability of the Parishioners to pay the Window Tax any longer; and therefore praying a repeal of that oppressive impost. After some consultation, this address, being seconded by Mr. Dillon was agreed to, and the Churchwardens were directed to write to the Chancellor of the Exchequer requesting him to appoint a time for receiving the address.

(The window tax was a property tax based on the number of windows in a house. It was a significant social, cultural, and architectural force in England, France, Ireland and Scotland during the 18th and 19th centuries. To avoid the tax some houses from the period can be seen to have bricked-up window-spaces (ready to be glazed or re-glazed at a later date). In England and Wales it was introduced in 1696 and was repealed in 1851, 156 years after first being introduced. France (established 1798, repealed 1926) and Scotland both had window taxes for similar reasons. The tax was introduced in England and Wales under the An Act for granting to His Majesty several Rates or Duties upon Houses for making good the Deficiency of the clipped Money in 1696 under King William III and was designed to impose tax relative to the prosperity of the taxpayer, but without the controversy that then surrounded the idea of income tax. At that time, many people in Britain opposed income tax, on principle, because the disclosure of personal income represented an unacceptable governmental intrusion into private matters, and a potential threat to personal liberty. In fact the first permanent British income tax was not introduced until 1842, and the issue remained intensely controversial well into the 20th century.)

ASCENT AND DESCENT OF THE BALLOON. On the 20th, after repeated postponements, the Balloon ascended from Portobello Barracks with Miss Thompson and Mr. Livingston. The hour had been fixed for half-past one o’clock, but the necessary preliminaries of inflation, adjusting the car &c., were not concluded before half-past three, at which time it was loosed from its fastenings and went off in admirable style, and with great rapidity, taking a southerly direction. The great anxiety of the immense crowd which had assembled within the Barrack enclosure, seemed to be, to see Miss Thompson enter the car, and prepare for her aerial flight—to accomplish this, the pressure was inconceivably great upon those who superintended the arrangements preparatory to the ascent. This lady displayed a perfect composure and self-possession at the time of her departure from the platform, to which the Balloon had been carried, and the apparent intrepidity of her companion was likely to confirm her confidence in the security with which she committed herself to atmospheric space. The shouts and cheerings of the multitude, both within and without the barracks, served to encourage her resolution, and she waved her hand and bade adieu, with seeming gaiety, as she ascended. In four or five minutes after the Balloon departed, a Parachute, to which was attached a small land Tortoise, was separated from it, and in a short period reached the earth and in seventeen minutes from the period of ascent, the Balloon descended on the boundary of the demesne of Marley, the seat of J. D. Latouche, Esq.—the hospitable proprietor of which had watched their progress, and was prepared to assist and receive them and he provided for all the claims their situation presented, with his characteristic kindness and urbanity. The voyagers partook of a dinner at Marley, after which they returned to town, where they were warmly welcomed by their friends. This short trip was in consideration of the course which the Balloon had necessarily taken, and which would have brought it very expeditiously to the sea-coast, and Mr. Livingston, with a laudable gallantry, did not wish to expose his fair partner to the peril which might result from entering upon a marine region, and abridged his voyage in consequently. No accident of any kind occurred.

The attention of Colonel Pelly, and the Officers and men of the 16th Lancers, was friendly and unremitting while the Balloon was preparing for the ascent. Miss Thompson wore a striped sarsnet dress and Spanish hat and feathers. (The first ascent in Ireland was from Ranelagh Gardens in Dublin in 1785 by Richard Crosbie.)

DIED. In the town of Monaghan on the 18th inst. of a fever, Mr. Robert Jackson, Merchant, universally esteemed in life and lamented in death—He was an affectionate husband, an indulgent father, a generous master, a pleasing companion, and an honest man.

Last week, Mr. Con. O’Donnell of Ballyshannon, innkeeper.

On the 13th inst. in the 59th year of his age at his residence Annagheen, near Carrickmacross, greatly regretted by a numerous and respectable circle of friends and acquaintances James Kelly, Esq.

It is under impressions of extreme concern that we have to state the death of Mrs. Richardson, wife of Major Richardson of Rusfad (Rosfad) in this County, and sister to Lieutenant-General Archdall. She expired on the evening of Friday last, after a short but severe illness, in a malignant fever, which baffled all the powers of medicine, and the best efforts of professional skill. This excellent and lamented lady, it may be truly said, fell a victim to her charitable feelings, having caught the infectious and fatal disease, which took away her valuable life, from some of the numerous sick and indigent poor, who sought and found daily relief at Rusfad. Her remains were deposited in the family vault at Templemahery (Templemaghery) (Ardess) on Sunday.

On Thursday night last two cows, one of them belonging to the Rev. Mr. Kernan, were stolen out of a field contiguous to this town. In the fair of Lurganboy on the following day, the thieves were detected offering the cattle for sale, and have been since lodged in Gaol. One of them proves to be a man named John Rorke, who was tried for an offence of a similar nature so recently as the late Assizes here.

We lament to state that, for several nights past, very considerable damage has been done in the potatoe fields situated near this town, by some nocturnal prowlers who destroy the plant, to procure such portion of its produce as is worth removing. The institution of a nightly watch has been adopted in many places, as a protection against the depredations of these wretches, and is a prudent and necessary measure, which should be resorted to everywhere under such circumstances.

A white Swallow has been observed for some days past flying about Castlecoole demesne. Its plumage is pure snow-white, and the beak somewhat of a dark colour. The bird, which is altogether very beautiful, is rather larger than the common species of swallow, and seems to be an object of envy and persecution among its associates of homelier garb.

A malignant fever is at present raging in many parts of the kingdom. Its effects are comparatively unfelt in this neighbourhood, although many cases of a milder character of the disease appear among the lower classes, and a few respectable families have been visited by me calamity.

The weather, since our last, though variable, and rather more moist than could be wished, has, nevertheless, been on the whole pretty favourable to the maturation of the farm crops, which everywhere exhibit, a weighty ear, and a ripening appearance. Yesterday was uninterruptedly fair, and the fineness of this morning would seem to justify the most favourable presages.

Extract of a Letter from Lifford dated 21st instant. “I had a carpenter doing a little job, and I feel much in assuring you that he had, to-day, to go to Strabane to assist in making coffins for the dead and dying in that town and neighbourhood of the contagious Fever now prevalent there. There is also a fever in our Gaol, and there are also several cases in town. The Sick- Report yesterday stated 63 ill in the Fever Hospital.

 

ENNISKILLEN EXECUTION. Last Thursday, Thomas Broughton, pursuant to his sentence at the late Assizes held here, was executed from the drop in front of the New Gaol. The morning war unusually fine and the sun rose bright for every eye but the unfortunate criminal’s. Stimulated by a curiosity which, however it may be censured as cruel, we would not wish to see repressed, in consideration of the appalling lesson it may bring under the eyes of many of our fellow creatures, callous to ordinary admonition, the population of the surrounding country, for many miles, assembled to witness the awful ceremony. The space immediately in front of the Gaol was occupied by the military, consisting of a troop of Dragoons, with a Company of the Royal Scots and the immense concourse of spectators of both sexes extended a considerable distance to right and left,, and in front, as far as the Fort Hill, the sides and summit of which appeared one animated mass.

The Rev. Mr. Duffy, R.C., Chaplain of the Gaol, passed a great part of the preceding night in the cell of the criminal, fortifying his mind against the approaching trial with the sublime consolations of religion; and with such happy effect, that the penitent seemed already almost enfranchised from his mortal coil; in contemplating and desiring the eternity before him. His affections were, in fact wholly disengaged from the things of this world; and he was heard more than, once to regret the few hours delay prescribed by the formalities of the law under such circumstances. Previous to leaving the cell his wife and some of his children, were permitted to take their last fare well, and here, even amid this trying scene, so calculated to wring a father’s heart, he preserved the mastery over his feelings, and that unshaken firmness and composure, which astonished at once and edified the beholders. In every stage of the proceedings his fortitude, leaning upon a Redeemer’s love, and lifted up by a humble confidence in His mercy regained equally unmoved; and the deep, settled resignation of his mind, to a casual observer, might have appeared the effect indifference, or insensibility. Shortly after the departure of his family, he was conducted to the execution room, accompanied by the Rev. Messrs. Kernan and Duffy who there read the sublime affecting office suited to the occasion of a parting soul. There was something beyond what is merely of this earth—something spiritual and heavenly—in the moment. The terrors and ignominy of a public death—the crimes which incurred such punishment—faded from the picture, and the heart only contemplated the spectacle of the frail creature returning to the bosom of his Creator—of the sinner approaching the feet of his Saviour, through the path of repentance and under the mediation of religion.

After some time spent in further acts of devotion, the fatal hour was announced. The prisoner, with the most perfect collectedness, again joined with the Reverend Gentlemen, and some others, present, in fervent prayer. He freely, acknowledged the justice of the sentence, by which he was to suffer, forgave his prosecutors and all others, & expressed himself fully reconciled, and ready, to yield up his life as a small atonement for his crimes. He then cheerfully submitted to the operation of binding his arms by the executioner, who was in attendance, and advanced on the platform, in view of the people, with a firm step, and some appearance of alacrity. Having been fixed in a proper  posture and situation, he raised the cap off his face, as well as the position of his arms would allow, and looked round on the multitude for a moment, apparently with some intention of addressing them. He, however, continued silent—the executioner immediately replaced the cap—retired— and the next instant the unfortunate man was launched into eternity. He expired almost instantaneously, without the slightest struggle or indication of suffering and, after remaining suspended for the usual period, the body was lowered into the coffin underneath and delivered to the relatives, who bore it out of town.

It has been said, and we fear too truly, that, from his early youth up to the advanced age, at which his life terminated thus ignominiously, Broughton was an occasional, if not a habitual violator of the laws. A report prevailed, said to be founded on his own confession, that he was a former associate of Peebles of Lisnaskea, long known as a notorious marauder in this County; and also that he was a party at the robbery of Lisgoole Abbey, near this town, about forty years ago. We feel it but justice to state, that, while under sentence of death, he disclaimed, in the most solemn manner, any sort of connection with Peebles, farther than having afforded him shelter and guidance on one occasion, when flying from pursuit, he accidentally stopped at his house; and that he denied, in the same unequivocal terms, any participation whatever in the attack on Lisgoole alluded to. The solemn lesson taught by his history, and his end, cannot fail to sink deep into the minds of those, who may have unhappily fallen into similar habits of crime. The old and practiced transgressor may be warned, that vengeance, though often slow, and suspended for a time, no doubt for the gracious purpose of holding out an invitation to repentance, is sure to overtake the hardened criminal at last; while the young offender, yet unconfirmed in the ways of guilt, must tremble to perceive the certain fate he is preparing for himself, and learn to remember his Creator in the days of his youth.

All spellings as per original.

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November 14th 1908.

14-11-1908. ECHO OF THE ARCHDALL DIVORCE CASE. SEPARATION DEED ARRANGED. APPLICATION AS TO COSTS. On Monday, in the Probate Court, Dublin, before Mr. Justice Andrews, an application in reference to costs was made in the case of Archdall v. Archdall. The petitioner was Mr. Edward Hugh Archdall, of Drumcoo, Co. Fermanagh, and the respondent was his wife, Mrs. Dorothea Frederica M. Archdall. The trial, which had attracted considerable attention, had resulted in a disagreement of the jury. Mr. Patchell, K.C. (instructed by Mr. B. L. Winslow), on behalf of the respondent, stated that the matter had been before the Court on several occasions. The original application was for an order directing that the wife’s costs should be paid when taxed. Some months ago that application was made, but it was adjourned on the ground that it might be premature. The suit had now, however, been determined, and a separator deed arranged by which the parties agreed to live separately and to enter into an arrangement of a pecuniary character for the support of the wife and the custody of the children. There was, however, in the deed, nothing in reference to costs. Mr. Justice Andrews and counsel discussed the question whether any order for costs should include those of the separation deed. Mr. Pringle who (instructed by Messrs. Falls & Pringle appeared for the petitioner, said he was not instructed as to the costs of the separation proceedings. Mr. Justice Andrews, allowed the motion to stand for a week.

14-11-1908. WHAT OTHER NATIONS ARE DOING. With reference to the methods adopted by different countries to improve the breed of horses, in Germany the Government army estimates provide £100,000 for the encouragement of horse-breeding, Austria-Hungry, £300,000, France, £100,000, England nil. In America the Government also looks well after the important matter of horse breeding.

DONEGAL ISLANDERS CLAIM FOR SALVAGE. In the Court of Admiralty, before Mr Justice Johnston. Mr Thomas Patton (instructed by Mr. J. E. O’Doherty) applied on behalf of the plaintiffs, Michael O’Donnell, Edward O’Donnell, and Michael F. O’Donnell, all residing on Arranmore Island, Burtonport, County Donegal for an order giving them leave to issue and serve a writ out of the jurisdiction on the defendants ,’the Fleetwood Steam Shipping Co.,’ Ltd. The action is for £80 claim for salvage services alleged “to have been rendered to the defendant company’s steamer Ixion while in distress off Rutland Island, County Donegal, on 9th and 10th August last. Mr. Justice Johnston granted the application, the writ to be served on the secretary of the company.

14-11-1908. CATTLE DRIVING IN CO. DERRY. On Sunday five Head of cattle were discovered to be missing from the field of Mr. Robert Simpson, having strayed or been stolen. The occurrence has been reported to the police of the entire district around. A month ago two head of cattle were stolen from Bridgend. This looks to be even worse than cattle driving, about which the Unionist organs prate so much. In the South and West the cattle are never injured nor driven away after being taken off the lands. Perhaps some of the “Carrion Crow” M.P.’s would table a question in the House.

14-11-1908. SCENE AT THE RAILWAY STATION. The majority of those who attended the hiring fair in Enniskillen on Tuesday last had to seek refuge in the various places of refreshment from the drenching downpour which prevailed during the day. The result was rather disastrous. In the evening a considerable number emerged from the public-houses fortified by the strong drinks, for which Enniskillen is said to be famous, and added to the gaiety of the town by rolling in the mud, of which there was an abundance and engaging in the usual drunken brawls. The police were kept busy during the day in quelling rows, and in the evening the two police barracks were pretty full. While awaiting the arrival of the 6.30 p.m. train from Dublin a melee occurred at the railway station between some parties from the Kesh district, and a large window at the entrance to the station was broken.

14-11-1908. LARGE AMERICAN FACTORY FOR ENGLAND. The Stolz Electrophone Co, of Chicago with London Offices at 82, Fleet Street, manufacturers of a patent pocket telephone for the deaf, have decided to move the foreign department of their Works to London in order to meet the requirements of the new patent law. The company will employ about 600 hands. In America the Stolz Electrophone has become as necessary as spectacles. The principal agent used in the Electro-phone is electricity, which enables people hard of hearing to hear clearly at any distance. The instrument is portable and a powerful sound intensifier. The whole of the European trade off this concern will be fed by the London Works.

14-11-1908. LISNASKEA HIRING FAIR. The half-yearly hiring fair was held in Lisnaskea on Saturday. Very little hiring is now done in these fairs. All the youths and maidens in the neighbourhood on pleasure bent were present, on Saturday. There was also an exceptionally large crowd of the itinerant class.

14-11-1908. ENNISKILLEN MAN’S BODY FOUND NEAR CASTLE CALDWELL. On Tuesday the body of a young man named Charles Nethercote, a boat builder, aged about 30 years, who resided in Strand St., Enniskillen, was found floating in Lough Erne. It appears deceased left his home on Monday week last in company with his brother, and proceeded by boat to Castlecaldwell for a cargo of sand. When about to return a few days later the deceased left the boat, and getting into a small punt proceeded homewards in. the direction of Enniskillen followed by his brother. Nothing was heard of him up till Tuesday last, when, as stated, his dead body was found.

14-11-1908. TO DETERMINE OLD AGE PENSIONS INCOMES. As a result of consultation with practical farmers about Magherafelt district the following figures have been adopted for determining the income of a person engaged in agriculture:— He allowed £8 per acre on potatoes, £5 on corn, £2 on black hay, £6 on white hay, a horse £6, a cow £4, heifer. £2, a calf £1, from 10s to £1 on each peck of flax sown. He allowed 25 per cent, for working expenses and the keep of animals, and also made an allowance for rent. Mr. Ward said the Treasury gave no instructions as to the values to be placed on crops and stock. It was left to the discretion of the pension officers. Of course the figures varied according to the quality of the crop.

Fermanagh Times November 4th 1915.  MONSTER PIKE CAUGHT IN LOUGH ERNE.  The information reaches us from Kesh of the capture within the past few days of a pike which weighed 39 lbs in Lower Lough Erne off the mouth of the Kesh River. What makes the catch more interesting is the fact that it was secured by the ordinary method of fishing with rod and line from a boat, the lucky angler being Mr. P Keown of Portinode, Kesh.  It appears that but for the skilful handling of the boat by Mr. C. J. Keown, who is an expert oarsman and enthusiastic angler, it would have been impossible to land such a large fish. A according to the oldest fisherman in the locality it is by far the biggest pike ever taken from the Erne.

Fermanagh Times November 4th 1915.  SLIGO MURDER TRIAL.  GIRL SENTENCED TO DEATH.  Mr. Justice Dodds and a city common jury in the Four Courts concluded yesterday the trial of Jane Reynolds for the willful murder in Sligo on the 8th of December last of an Italian woman, Rose de Lucia,  the wife of an ice cream vendor, Angelo, who is awaiting trial on the same charge.  The motive which the Crown alleged was that Angelo de Lucia and Jane Reynolds were in love and conspired to do away with Mrs. de Lucia.  The jury, after half an hour, returned to Court, and in replied to a question by the foreman His Lordship said the girl would be guilty of murder if the jury found that she was present during the murder, and consented to death though she took no part in the actual murder. The jury again retired and after an absence of another half an hour, returned to Court with a verdict of guilty and a strong recommendation to mercy.  His Lordship, who was deeply moved, passed sentence of death, the execution to take place in Sligo Jail on 2nd of December next.  The prisoner here broke down and exclaimed, “I am innocent.  De Lucia killed his wife, have mercy on me”.

His lordship – “May the lord have mercy on you”.

Prisoner – “My Lord do not hang me.  Oh, my little child; my little child.” The Court was then cleared.

Fermanagh Times November 4th 1915.  OBITUARY.  MR. J. C. C.  MASON, J. P.  Although he had reached the ripe old age of over 79 years the late Mr. J. C. Mason, J. P., Moy, Letterbreen, and appeared to his many friends to be in his usual health up until a few weeks ago.  Time, of course, was beginning to tell its inevitable tale on his physique, but all who knew him expected that he had still a good spell of life before him.  On Wednesday the 27th ult., however, he took suddenly ill, and although medical assistance was immediately procured very shortly afterwards passed away, heart failure being the immediate cause of death.  The deceased gentleman was well known throughout this part of Fermanagh; he was a prominent Nationalist, and took a leading part in the land agitation in bygone years, but was always honest and straightforward in his views, and thus gained a the esteem of both his political enemies and friends.  In 1894 he was appointed to the Commission of the Peace for the County, and for some years served on the Enniskillen Board of Guardians.  It is only a short time ago since we had to chronicle the death of his brother, Mr. F. Mason, who had reached the exalted position of the Speaker of the Legislative Assembly of Victoria, Australia. Of a kindly, genial disposition Mr. Mason was a very popular neighbour and made many friends among the Protestants in the district, and sincere sympathy has been extended to his son and three daughters in their bereavement.

Impartial Reporter.  November 4th 1915.  THE RIGHT TO CHOOSE A WIFE.  At the quarterly meeting of the Gweedore and Rosses Teachers Association, the following resolution was adopted – ‘that we, the young unmarried teachers of this association, regret to find out that in a certain locality a teacher must subject his choice of a wife to the censorship of his manager.  We fail to see how that manager can claim the power he exercises so drastically, for in this particular line of business every eye must negotiate for itself.’

Fermanagh Herald November 6th. 1915.  MEN OF FERMANAGH. A GREAT VOLUNTARY RALLY. NOW OR NEVER. YOUR FELLOW IRISHMEN AT THE FRONT WANT YOU.  Big recruiting meetings will be held as follows 4th of November Kesh; 5th of November, Fivemiletown; 6th of November Lisnaskea; 8th of November; Irvinestown; 10th of November Enniskillen 11th of November Lisbellaw and on the 12th of November Donegal. Bands of the Fourth Battalion Inniskillings (Fermanagh) will be in attendance. (Ed. Half page advertisement.)

Fermanagh Herald November 6th. 1915.  A COMING RECRUITING MEETING.  It was my intention to ignore Mr. Trimble’s peccadilloes for some time to come, as I had arrived at the conclusion that my readers were well able to understand Mr. Trimble’s frame of mind without my analysing it, and moreover I had intended to refrain from filling this column with the vagaries of Trimbilism, because of the fact that the wisdom preached by the Reporter is heeded by no one and on this account there were more important matters on which I could deliberate.  However I cannot resist writing a few words on a statement made in last week’s East Bridge oracle.  Judging by the writings, speeches, and conversations of Mr. Trimble one would conclude that he, and he alone, was the last word in politics, religion, literature – and recruiting.  In last week’s issue of his paper he has an article – a very malignant article – under the heading of “A Last Effort.”  In the course of this article – a diatribe against a recruiting meeting to be held in Enniskillen – he says THE FORMER RECRUITING COMMITTEE, BADLY MISMANAGED, DID NOTHING; AND IF WE ARE TO JUDGED BY THE LUKEWARMNESS OF, AND THE PAUCITY OF ATTENDANCE AT, AND THE PERSONNEL OF TUESDAY’S MEETING, WE CANNOT EXPECT MUCH.

Now this meeting was convened by Mr. John E Collum, H.M.L., to make arrangements for a big rally and thereby hangs a tale.  The fact that Mr. Collum called the meeting was quite sufficient for Mr. Trimble to write it down.  Had it been convened by Mr. McFarland, of “handy man” fame, we would have been greeted with columns of eulogy, and the meeting would, in Mr. Trimble’s perspective, have been associated with all that was grand, noble, and perfect in patriotism.

EAST BRIDGE STREET NOT THERE.  He says if we are to judge by the personnel of Tuesday’s meeting, we cannot expect much.  What does Mr. Trimble mean by the word personnel?  Does he know the meaning of it?  Here are the gentlemen who attended the meeting: – Mr. John McHugh, J. P., Pettigo, Chairman of the County Council, presided, and those present included: the Right Hon. Edward Archdale; Mr. John Collum, H.M.L.; Major Johnston, Captain W.  Nixon, and Messrs.  James O’Donnell, Brookeborough; Francis Meehan, John Maguire, Newtownbutler; John Nixon, D.L., Belcoo; J.  Porter-Porter, D.L., Belleisle; H. Kirkpatrick, Lisnaskea; J. F. Wray LL.B., Enniskillen; Felix Leonard, Belleek; H. A. Burke, D.L.; E. M. Archdale, D.L.  Everyone will readily admit that the gentlemen who were present were representative of all shades of politics, and practically every district in the county.  But Mr. Trimble was not there.  And fact that the East Bridge Street Division of Enniskillen was not represented lowered considerably the social and political and intellectual status of the gathering.

  1. TRIMBLE’S ADMISSION. Let us pass on from this statement of silly and ignorant egotism. Having made of this charge against the gentlemen named, he says: – FOR OUR OWN PART, IT IS WELL KNOWN THAT WE HAVE BEEN CONCERNED IN BRINGING MANY MORE MEN TO THE ARMY, AND THAT WHATEVER OUR SHORTCOMINGS MAY BE IN OTHER RESPECTS, OUR EFFORT IN THIS DIRECTION HAS NOT BEEN SURPASSED IN THE COUNTY FERMANAGH NOR APPROACHED BY ALL THE COMBINED EFFORTS OF THE RECRUITING COMMITTEE.

What strikes the average reader on perusing this sentence is the discovery that Mr. Trimble, on his own admission, has shortcomings.  He states that he has no shortcomings on the question of recruiting – but he has in other respects.  One of the other respects we will presume, is the maligning of Nationalists and Catholics – and Mr. Trimble has admitted it!  Wonders will never cease!

THE EXPLANATION.  The recruiting meeting which is to be held in Enniskillen shortly has been the cause of weeping and wailing in the Editorial sanctum of the Reporter because of the fact that Mr. Trimble has not been asked to speak.  The names of the speakers are: – Lord Lieutenant, Colonel Wallace, Joseph Devlin, M. P.; J. Collum, H.M.L.; J. F.  Wray, LL.B.; S.  C.  Clarke, solicitor; William Ritchie, George Whaley, E. M., Archdale, D. L., and others.  There are some names on the list that caused Mr. Trimble a pang, and were the cause of all the narrow-minded invective.  “Some men are born great some achieve greatness, and others have greatness thrust upon them.”  Mr. Trimble had visions of being the very lifeblood of this meeting, as he was born great, and could do great things, while others are having greatness thrust upon them, and according to Mr. Trimble, will be unsuccessful in even securing one recruit.  “We shall see what we shall see.

  1. E. M.

Impartial Reporter.  November 11th 1915. AEGEAN SEA DISASTER.  A BRITISH TRANSPORT SHIP SUNK.  The British transport Ramazan was sunk by an enemy submarine by a shell fire at 6.00 AM on the 19th of September of the island of Antecythera in the Aegean.  There were about 380 Indian troops on board of whom 75 were saved.  28 of the crew were also saved. A number of boats were smashed by shell fire.  The survivors reached Antecythera in their own boats that night and were kindly and hospital treated by the inhabitants.

Impartial Reporter.  November 11th 1915.  LORD KITCHENER HAS GONE ABROAD IN A NEW FUNCTION.  IT WAS FEARED HE HAD RESIGNED.  The public mind was greatly perturbed during the end of last week on learning that Lord Kitchener had left the War Office, and a great fear was that he had resigned his post as Secretary of State for War.  The rumour that had gone abroad was promptly denied. It is now learned that Lord Kitchener paid a visit to the French War Office that he may go further afield to the east.  There is reason to believe that Lord Kitchener mission of war is not entirely of a military nature.  His main task is to explore the whole field of that vast and complex area of warfare in the east and to coordinate the operations of the British armies in the Balkans, in Gallipoli, in Egypt and on the plains of Mesopotamia, while at the same time taking fully into account the important India aspect of that gigantic war situation.  Mr. Asquith is to be his successor.

Impartial Reporter.  November 11th 1915.  THE LAST CALL FOR RECRUITS TO AVOID CONSCRIPTION.  VOLUNTARYISM ON TRIAL WITH SOME SCATHING COMMENTS BY PROMINENT SPEAKERS.  The present recruiting campaign in Fermanagh has not been the success one would wish.  It had borne out the words of Colonel McCloughry, who at Kesh spoke of present recruiting methods as ‘a gigantic and expensive sham’ and Mr. E. M. Archdale, D. L. as the ‘Voluntary Humbug.’  The pipe band and the drums of the 4th Inniskillings (Fermanagh’s) took part in the tour under Captain Nixon.  The first meeting of the tour in County Fermanagh was held at Kesh and the reception meted out to the military and cold indifference of the young men of that locality was a bad augury for the present campaign.  There was a small crowd present to listen to the speeches, mostly old men and women but not above 50 in number.  It was said that there were a number of Protestant old men who evidently felt aggrieved that the Roman Catholics have not responded in Ireland in proportion to their population as well as the Protestant.  One farmer who has seven sons at home, when asked to send some of them to enlist replied ‘Damn the one I will send till the Nationalists ago.  Colonel McCloughry, Ederney said Lord Kitchener wanted 50,000 men from Ireland at once and the proportions from the registration districts of Ederney, Clonelly and Pettigo were 50, 18 and 25 respectively or 93 men between the ages of 19 and 45.  Considering the poor response as a result of previous meeting held he doubted whether they would get these men.  It was only his Majesty’s proclamation which induced him to take part in that meeting which he believed the hopeless.  Recruiting had been boycotted by the farmers and shopkeepers in rural districts and nowhere was this more pronounced than in that locality. (Kesh).  One party said we cannot join and leave those aggressive Orangemen behind to murder our people.  And the other, if we go the Nationalists will pinch our farms and shops.  The true reasons for the want of enthusiasm regarding the war were economic.  The people were enjoying a period of unparalleled prosperity.  Farmers were getting anything from 50 to 80 per cent more for their produce and shopkeepers were having their bills paid.

Fermanagh Herald November 13th. 1915.  THE RECRUITING RALLY.  MEETINGS IN FERMANAGH AND DONEGAL. KESH.  The Rt.  Hon.  Edward Archdale, P. C., presided at the recruiting meeting held at Kesh on Thursday.  The Chairman, who was well received, said that they had 272,000 men of military age in Ireland, and surely they could send 50,000 in answer to Lord Kitchener’s appeal.  Irish regiments had been doing very well both in France and at the Gallipoli Peninsula but their ranks had been depleted, and they wanted them made up again with Irishmen and Irishmen alone.  Thanks to the splendid work of the British Navy our country had been spared the horrors which were suffered in Serbia, Belgium, France, and Russia and it was in order to beat back the enemy that threatened their liberty that was why they were appealing for recruits that day.

Colonel A.  McCloughry, Ederney, said Lord Kitchener wanted to 50,000 men from Ireland at once and the proportion for the registration districts of Ederney, Clonelly and Pettigo were 50, 18 and 25 respectively for 93 men between the ages of 19 and 45.  Considering the poor response as a result of previous meetings held, he doubted whether they would get those men.  It was only his Majesty’s proclamation which induced him (the speaker), to take part in that meeting, which he believed the hopeless.  Were they are not taking part in a gigantic and expensive sham?  Recruiting had been boycotted by the farmers and shopkeepers in rural districts, and nowhere was this more pronounced than in that locality.  Antipathy, not apathy, expressed their feelings.  When he contrasted the martial ardour of 16 months ago with the frost there that day what could he say?  He could not say it was the want of courage, because that would not be true, nor did he believe in the seriousness of an old farmer who said to him, ”What, fight Germany, the only Protestant country in Europe.  (A voice – nothing of the kind.”  The people were driven to the last ditch and what was the defensive position?  One party said, “We cannot join and leave those aggressive Orangemen behind to murder our people,” and the other, “if we go the Nationalists will pinch our farms and shops.”  He had not much confidence in the apologists, but if they thought that any danger really existed it could be easily obviated by one party, the Unionists, sending 47 and the Nationalists 46 men.  (Hear, hear.)  The true reasons for the want of enthusiasm regarding the war were economic.  The people were enjoying a period of unparalleled prosperity.  Farmers were getting anything from 50 to 80 per cent more for their produce, and shopkeepers were having their bills paid.  However, this was the last chance so far as the voluntary system was concerned, and if they did not get the numbers of men conscription would be put in force.  He concluded by appealing to the farmers and shopkeepers to make the present rally a success.  (Applause.)

Mrs. Barton in a brief address, appealed to the young men to go out and protect the women.  They could not defend themselves, their place was in the home which they would keep, but they wanted the men to out and fight for them.

Lieutenant Kendrick said that he was sorry to see so many young men there that day in mufti when they should be fighting their country’s battles.  He would ask the farmers to get their sons to go, telling them it was their duty to help the boys in the trenches.  Applause.  Private Barton, Australian contingent also spoke. (Ed. A relative of the Bartons of Clonelly.)

Fermanagh Herald November 13th. 1915.  REV. CHARLES BYRNE, C. P., THE VICAR OF “THE GRAAN”, ENNISKILLEN, IS APPOINTED CHAPLAIN TO THE BRITISH FORCES.  He was born at June Giltown, Co., Kildare, and ordained at Mount St., Josephs, London in 1901.  For eight years he did missionary work in that city, and he was then transferred to Glasgow where he was chaplain to the infirmary for four years.  In 1914 he was appointed vicar of “The Graan” Enniskillen, where he remained until this year, when he with a number of others from the same Order, volunteer their services as chaplains for the army.

Fermanagh Herald November 13th. 1915.  THE COMING OF CHRISTMAS.  AN ADVANCE WORD TO OUR READERS.  We have begun preparations for our annual double number and invite the cooperation of our readers to make it excel even last year’s, Irish stories, Irish sketches, Irish articles, Irish poems, and Irish legends which admittedly beat all records in a Christmas publication in Ulster.  One Guinea will be awarded to the writer of the best original story in English.  This contribution must be a real living story of Irish Life and must not exceed 1800 words.  Four prizes, one of five shillings and three of half a crown, are offered for the best numerous storyletters written on postcards.  None larger will be considered.

Fermanagh Herald November 13th. 1915.  PRIESTS IN THE TRENCHES.  It is estimated that there are between 60,000 and 70,000 priests engaged in one capacity or another at the various fronts, says the Weekly Dispatch.  Of these from 10,000 to 20,000 are in France actually fighting in the trenches.  Such scenes must have burnt themselves in the memories of all who witnessed them.  But even these do not make so great an impression as the deeds of personal heroism accomplished by the chaplains.  The death of Fr. Finn, chaplain of the 1st Dublin’s, is a typical example.  It was on the occasion of one of the landings at the Dardanelles, under heavy machine gun fire.  He saw some Tommies fall on the beach and asked for permission to go down to them, getting hit in the shoulder as he ran down the gangway of the liner, the River Clyde.  Bleeding profusely, he managed to crawl to the men, to whom he managed to administer extreme unction.  Hardly had he finished however when a bullet caught him in the head.  Before help could be got he had expired, his last words being, “Are we winning boys?  Are we winning? “ Fr. Lane Fox, of the London Irish is described in another letter as actually taking part in the famous charges at Loos, absolving those who were shot as they fell and arriving in the German trenches along with the battalion.

Fermanagh Herald November 13th. 1915.  MR. E.  HUGH ARCHDALL, SECRETARY TO THE FERMANAGH COUNTY COUNCIL, Enniskillen, has received the following message of condolence from their Majesties the King and Queen on the death of his brother, Major Nicholas James Mervyn Archdall, 5th Queen’s Own Cameron Highlanders, who was killed in action in the recent great British offence in France: -Buckingham Palace, – E.  Hugh Barton, Esq., Drumcoo, Enniskillen, – the King and Queen deeply regret the loss you and the Army have sustained by the death of your brother in the service of this country.  Their Majesties truly sympathise with you in your sorrow.  – Keeper of the Privy Purse.

Fermanagh Herald November 13th. 1915.  EMIGRATION TO AMERICA.  SCENES AT LIVERPOOL.  Exciting scenes were witnessed in Liverpool on Saturday outside the of the Cunard offices when a party of young Irishman were emigrating to America, says a Press Association telegram.  About 650 of these emigrants arrived in Liverpool from Holyhead early this morning, and proceeded to the Cunard offices for their passes for a ship which sails this afternoon, the men having booked their passages in Ireland.  The queue of emigrants entered the office.  At tremendous crowd assembled and taunted the emigrants with unpatriotism.  The crowd surged around them, calling them “Cowards” and asking them to show some pluck.  The police had to keep the crowd back.

THE ACTION OF THE SAXONIA’S CREW.  The Liverpool correspondent of the Freeman says – a dramatic development occurred shortly before noon on Saturday when the crew of the Curnarder Saxonia, held a meeting amongst themselves, conveyed to their Captain their determination not to sail for in the ship if the fleeing emigrants were permitted to come on board.  This decision was at once communicated to the Cunard directors, who, for once, found themselves in entire agreement with a resolution taken by the crew, and decided not to allow any men of military age to set foot on the steamer.  This step was taken avowedly in the interests of the country.  The information to the emigrants naturally caused much chagrin, and even dismay.  Its effect, however, was softened by the announcement that all those who desire would have their passage money returned.  They thereupon trooped back in a body to the Cunard Offices, and the process of repaying them was proceeded with, after which they disappeared fifth.

A GREAT MISUNDERSTANDING.  One of the Irish men interviewed declared that very few of those whom he knew were eligible: and he added: – but that apart, how many of our families have laid down their lives in this fight against the German militarism?  I had two brothers killed in landings at Gallipoli and the third at Suvla Bay and I can introduce you to scores of us who have given at least one member of the family to Britain since the war started.  That people in Ireland have joined the colours in remarkable numbers, and our record is one all Britain should be proud of.  In addition to that, there is hardly one of us sailing today but would have done so if there had been no war.  As a matter of fact, we would have sailed earlier, only with so many of our folks joining the ranks we had to wait at home and struggle all the harder to save all the money to enable us to get to America, where all our relatives are.  The rash statements that are being made as to the object we have in sailing are due to a great measure understanding.

MANY YOUNG ENGLISH SLACKERS.  The passport department of the Foreign Office is crowded daily, and all sorts of excuses are being offered by the young English slackers anxious to go abroad.  The average number of passports issued before the war was about 30 a day; the applications now are near 500.  Many of the applicants have discovered relatives in the United States or some other part of the world says the London Evening News, and in over 300 instances fit men of military age, have given seemingly satisfactory reasons for being granted passports, have been put back to allow the Government to consider what shall be done in the matter.

Fermanagh Times November 18th 1915.  THE DEATH OF LIEUTENANT COLONEL G. H. C. MADDEN.  Very profound regret was occasioned in Clones and district on Saturday, when it was learned that Lieut. Colonel Gerald H. C.  Madden who had commanded the 1st Battalion Irish Guards had died as the result of the terrible wounds he had received in the fighting near Bethune on the 11th of October.  Readers of this column will remember that the late officer had to have his left leg amputated above the knee in a Calais hospital.  On the 5th inst. he had so far recovered that he was removed to hospital in London where, to the general regret of a host of military and civilian friends, he succumbed.  He was a brother of Lieut. Colonel P.  C.  W.  Madden, D. L., Hilton Park, Clones, who is in command of the 4th Battalion Royal Irish Fusiliers, Victoria Barracks, Belfast.

Fermanagh Times November 18th 1915.  Much sympathy is felt in Newtownbutler and district with Mrs. Hannah Elliott, who has been notified that her husband, Private William James Elliott, 11675, Scottish Rifles was killed in action in Flanders on September 25th.  Around Lisbellaw and neighbourhood this notification has also been learned with widespread regret as deceased was the third son of Mr. Forster Elliott, Lisbellaw, who has two other sons in France.

Fermanagh Times November 18th 1915.  A DOUBLE TRAGEDY IN FERMANAGH AS THE SILLIES RIVER CLAIMS TWO VICTIMS.  The most distressing drowning fatality involving the lives of Mrs. Sarah Flannigan, aged 70 years, a widow, of Corr, and Miss Lucy Anna Elliott, her niece, aged 18 years of Rossculton, occurred on Thursday evening some miles from Enniskillen at the Sillies River. How the accident actually occurred is enveloped in impenetrable mystery.  It has been gathered that Mrs. Flanagan went to visit her brother, Robert Elliott who lived ½ mile distant.  She crossed the river as a shortcut at a point where it is 20 yards wide, a man named William Henry Eaton rowing her across.  When she returned about four o’clock in the evening, Miss Elliott went with her to row her back across the river, and, as she did not return after some time her friends went in search of her.  No sign of either was found or a boat could be seen.  The matter was reported to the police at Carngreen Barracks that night but as the river was in a flooded condition and darkness had then set in they could make no effort to search for the bodies then but later in the following day both bodies were recovered.

The funeral of Mrs. Flanagan, which took place on Sunday to Monea was very largely attended, there being no fewer than 57 cars besides those on foot.  The Rev. W. B. Steel officiated at the graveside.

The remains of Miss Eliot were laid to rest in Monea Churchyard on Monday, and the funeral was of very large proportions.  The customary Pilgrims Service, with hymns, was conducted at the graveside and was taken part in by Messrs.  B.  Donaldson, Derrygonnelly; John West, Crocknacrieve; James Bothwell, Monea; John Dane, Tuberton, and a number of other Pilgrims from the surrounding districts.

Impartial Reporter.  November 18th 1915.  On Saturday Lieutenant Colonel Gerald H.  C.  Madden, late officer commanding the 1st Batt., Irish guards who had been severely wounded in the fighting near Bethune on the 11th of October died after he had his leg amputated above the knee in the base hospital at Calais.  He had so far recovered that on Friday the fifth he was removed to Princess Henry of Battenberg’s Hospital, Hill Street, London where it was thought his chances would be better.  He was terribly upset by the journey across but rallied after a time.  However his constitution was unable to bear the strain of so many shocks and he unfortunately succumbed as stated.

The deceased was a brother of Lt. Colonel J. C. W.  Madden, D. L., Hilton Park, Clones now commanding the 4th Batt. Royal Irish Fusiliers at Victoria Barracks, Belfast, and brother in law of Major the Marquis of Ailesbury, D.S.O.  He has been warmly congratulated on the splendid conduct of his battalion by Major General the Earl of Cavan, C. B., doubt, M.V.O., commanding the Guards Division who expressed ‘his deepest and truest gratitude for your splendid services.’

The remains of the late Lieut-Colonel G.H.C. Madden arrived at Clones from London on Monday and were met at the station by a guard of honour of the R.I.C. under District Inspector M. J. Egan, Clones, and a large attendance of the townspeople of all classes.  Some magnificent wreathes accompanied the coffin.  All the shops were closed and the blinds drawn as a mark of respect.  The remains were taken to Hilton Park, Clones, from which the funeral took place on Wednesday at 12.00 with full military honours.  The internment took place in the family vault at Currin Parish Church, Scotshouse, Clones.

Fermanagh Herald November 20th. 1915.  ACCIDENT NEAR PETTIGO.  CASE DISMISSED AT QUARTER SESSIONS.  James Spence, Clonelly, sued Miss Emily Athill for damages in respect of a cow, the property of the plaintiff, which, it was alleged, had been killed by a pony and trap driven and owned by Miss Athill.  Mr. Spence gave evidence to the effect that some 8 cows belonging to him were being driven out of a field when a pony and trap driven by Miss Athill, who was coming from the direction of Pettigo, drove among the cattle and so injured one of the animals than a died some time later.  The shafts of the trap ran against the ribs of the cow, the injuries resulting in mortification.  The cow was worth £20 or more.  Cross examined he said that the incident took place on the 14th of June and the cow died on the 23rd of October. Miss Athill in evidence said that the point of the shaft struck one of the animals and having passed by the herd she looked back and saw the animals were moving along as if nothing had happened, and at the time witness was not aware that she had done any injury as the drovers did not call after the car.  It was an Iceland pony she was driving.

Fermanagh Herald November 20th. 1915.  AT LISBELLAW ON LAST THURSDAY, BEING THE OCCASION OF THE HIRING FAIR a recruiting meeting was held.  Lieutenant Kennedy having given figures as to the number and percentage of recruits required said that the percentage required from Ireland under the latest scheme was 1,100 men a week.  Considering the number of eligible young men who were still in the country, he was sure that would be easily forthcoming.  Some people said that Ireland had done her share: but the speaker declared that Ireland taken as a whole, had not done well enough.  The Lord Lieutenant had said that the number of men engaged on work not connected with the war was 260,000.  Of that number a large number of young men were of the shop-keeping class – the young men who stood behind counters measuring half-yards of cloth and giving out pints of porter.  (Cries of they are cowards.)  It was a shame that they should be allowed to walk about at such a time. (Cowards.)

Fermanagh Herald November 20th. 1915.  FERMANAGH BOATING TRAGEDY.  TWO WOMEN DROWNED.  Quite a sensation was occasioned in Enniskillen on last Saturday when it became known that on the previous night about 9.15 o’clock, Mrs. Sarah Flanagan, residing in Carnagreen, and aged 70, and her niece, Miss Lucy Anne Elliott, aged 18 years, living at Rosscultan both lost their lives in the Sillies River.  From the enquiries made it would appear that the elder lady desired to pay a visit to her brother, Mr. Robert Elliott, who lived not far from her own residence.  In order to reach her brother’s house, it was necessary she should cross the Sillies River on the outward journey.  She was rowed across the river at the point where it is some 20 yards wide, by Mr. William H.  Eton.  When returning, Miss Elliott went with the old lady to row her across the river.  They departed, and when the young lady did not return, a search party was organized but no trace of either woman or of the boat could be seen.  The spot where it is presumed the boat crossed is nine feet deep, and consequently in the recent heavy rains was very much swollen.

Fermanagh Herald November 20th. 1915.  The death of Lieutenant-Colonel Madden.  News was received on Saturday afternoon in Clones of the death of Lieutenant-Colonel Gerald H. C. Madden, 1st battalion Irish Guards who was severely wounded in the fighting near Bethune, on the 11th of October, and afterwards had his left leg amputated in the Base Hospital, at Calais.  He had recovered to such an extent that on Friday the 5th inst., he was removed to the Princess Henry of Battenberg’s Hospital, Hill Street, London, and although terribly upset by the journey, he rallied somewhat, and there was reason to hope he would soon get strong.  However his constitution was not equal to the strain.

There deceased was a brother of Lieutenant-Colonel John Madden, D.  L., Hilton Park, Clones, Co., Monaghan, now commanding the 4th battalion Royal Irish Fusiliers at Victoria Barracks, Belfast, and a brother-in-law of Major the Marquis of Ailesbury, D.S.O.  Major-General the Earl of Cavan C.B., M.V.O., in a letter to Colonel Madden, after he had been wounded, congratulated him on the splendid conduct of the battalion he commanded and expressed his deepest and truest gratitude for this officer’s splendid services.

Fermanagh Herald November 20th. 1915.  MR. REDMOND LEAVES FOR THE FRONT.  London, Wednesday morning, Mr. John Redmond has left on his visit to the Irish troops at the front.  He is accompanied by his private Secretary, Mr. T. J.  Hanna.

Fermanagh Herald November 27th. 1915.  AT DUNGANNON PETTY SESSIONS A FERMANAGH CLERGYMAN IS FINED FOR MOTORING WITHOUT A LICENCE.  The Rev. James Wilson, Tempo, Co., Fermanagh, was charged with reckless driving of a motor car on the public streets in Dungannon; secondly driving at a dangerous speed; thirdly with driving a motor car not having a licence to do so, and fourthly with driving a motor car and not using proper precautions by blowing the horn so as to safeguard the public.  He had also knocked down a young lad named Patrick Hughes, Ann Street.

Fermanagh Herald November 27th. 1915.  FERMANAGH RECRUITING INCIDENT.  A mild sensation was occasioned in the village of Ederney on last Thursday night.  The recruiting party at present touring Fermanagh, and having their headquarters at Enniskillen, decided to hold a recruiting concert in Ederney.  Accompanied by a band, the officers left Enniskillen.  On arrival at the village the band paraded the street for a short time and later repaired to a hall owned by a gentleman named Mr. Irvine, where it was understood the concert was to be held.  A large crowd were waiting for admission, but on the officers applying for admission, they were informed by the porter, who was in possession of the key, that Mr. Irvine had given instructions that no concert was to be held in his hall, because of the fact that the military authorities had not applied to him for permission to use the hall.  The performers and officers had therefore no other alternative but to abandon the concert.  Hearing this discussion some members of the local branch of the Ancient Order of Hibernians placed their commodious hall at the disposal of the military and a very successful concert and recruiting meeting was held.  Most of the officers of the recruiting party are Nationalists, and the owner of the hall is a prominent Unionist.  There is much comment on his refusal to grant of the use of the hall.

From the Broads to the Lakelands – English Plantation in Fermanagh in the early 17th century..

From the Broads to the Lakelands – English Plantation in Fermanagh.

 To give a very simplified mental picture of the Plantation of Fermanagh one has to visualise Fermanagh as a rectangle with Lough Erne running from east to west through the centre of the county. South of this east west line are three of the seven Baronies of Fermanagh with the most easterly and the most westerly namely Knockninny and Magheraboy were  granted to Scottish settlers and the central one partly to Irish and partly to English. On the northern side of the Erne the two Baronies on either end of Fermanagh were granted to English settlers and the two central largely to Irish natives other than around Enniskillen which was to be the new centre of the county of Fermanagh.

The south eastern barony originally granted to Scots from around the Edinburgh collapsed with the first ten years of the Plantation so that of the 9000 acres granted to them Sir Stephen Butler, an Englishman from Bedfordshire had purchased 8000 of these acres rendering this Barony therefore English rather than Scottish nearly straight away. So now the English had almost four of the seven Baronies of Fermanagh and had them in the most strategic places in the county – in the west next to the sea at Ballyshannon, in the centre about Enniskillen and in the east close to the entrance to the Upper Erne.

Most of the English who arrived in Fermanagh came from the area of East Anglia generally as Undertakers – those who undertook to carry our various conditions such as the building of a castle and bawn enclosure and the building of a church. To do this they had to have a certain high level of income (self assessed but) to build and to attract with them from England sufficient quality settlers to labour and farm and occupy the territory granted. Most of the servitors who got land in Fermanagh were also English. In Clinawley Barony, Sir John Davies, Attorney General 1,500 in the rich wheat bearing district around Lisgoole Abbey and reaching towards Enniskillen. Samuel Harrison, English 500 acres and Peter Mostyn, from Flintshire 246 acres.

The Barony of Coole and Tirkeneda Barony contained 116,006 acres almost entirely occupied by 9 undertakers, four of whom were servitors. These were Sir Henry Ffolliott, Baron Folliott of Ballyshannon, 1,500 acres, Roger Attkinson, 1,000 acres,  William Cole, reputedly from Devon 1,000 acres, and Paul Goore, son of a merchant-tailor of London, who had 1348 acres called the Manor of Inishmore.

In this short talk I am trying to explore why these English people were coming to Ireland when at the same time their neighbours, particularly in East Anglia were making America their plantation destination choice. Why Fermanagh rather than Jamestown in America, named after King James 1st? Most of the inhabitants of America’s first permanent English settlement came from Norfolk, England, including Samuel Lincoln, a forefather of President Abraham Lincoln. These are very fully documented in contrast to plantation and migration to Ireland e.g. from the Jamestown Original Settlers and Occupations – May 13, 1607 we even have the labourers recorded John Laydon, William Cassen, George Cassen, Thomas Cassen, William Rods, William White, Ould Edward, Henry Tavin, George Golding, John Dods, William Johnson, William Unger.

Firstly I think that at this stage in history the English had gained a lot of knowledge about this part of Ireland while relatively little was known of the Americas. Quite a few events of the Nine Years War had taken place in and around the Erne. In 1597 the English were defeated at Ballyshannon and then there had been a major siege of Enniskillen Castle in 1594. The island was captured by the English in 1607 and Ballyshannon had received a Royal Charter in 1613. So those who had served in the English army in Ireland and who as English Servitors wanted to be rewarded with Irish lands knew Fermanagh well and liked what they saw.

Sir John Davies, chief architect of the Plantation wrote after visiting Fermanagh, “ Have now finished in Fermanagh, which is so pleasant and fruitful a country that if he should make a full description thereof it would rather be taken for a poetical fiction, than for a true and serious narration. The fresh lake called Lough Erne being more than 40 miles in length, and abounding in fresh water fish of all kinds, and containing 100 dispersed islands, divides that county into two parts; the land on either side of the lough rising in little hills of 80 or 100 acres apiece, is the fattest and richest soil in all Ulster.

He goes on to suggest planting Dutch people in Fermanagh also led by a Dutch merchant called Maximilian van der Lever, who, by their industry the lake will be so full of boats and barks, that they will be a great strength to all the civil inhabitants round about.”

The Dutch interest in Fermanagh came to nought but it too had an origin in East Anglia. For centuries there had been huge commercial links between the Low Countries and this part of England. Dutch Protestant refugees fleeing Spanish Catholic persecution in their own country were getting refuge in East Anglia much to the annoyance of the Spanish. When the English upbraided the Spanish for giving refuge to the Irish Earls who fled there they responded in turn by pointing out England’s acceptance of Dutch refugees.

Such was the English interest in Fermanagh that they actually petitioned to plant the entire county themselves. The names of 40 gentlemen are recorded who offer to bestow £40,000 on the plantation of Fermanagh as they intend to have a market town on the south side thereof at Bellike, and from thence, three miles nearer the sea, to erect a strong corporation at Ballyshannon. They intended to erect 40 manors, if they are granted  60,000 acres, the Loughe, Islands therein, Fishings, and the sole command thereof and they with followers, not less than 1000 men well furnished for all kind of handiwork.”  Of those 40 listed 22 came from Norfolk and Suffolk and the rest from adjoining counties, London or were already in Ireland, presumably with contacts to the same area.

In the Precinct of Lurg and Coolemakarnan in northwest Fermanagh 9000 acres were allocated mainly to men of Norfolk and Suffolk. 1000 acres each to Thomas Flowerdewe, John Archdale, Suffolk, Edward Warde, Thomas Barton, Norfolk and Henry Honynge, Suffolk. John Archdale was related through marriage to the Honynge family having married Francis Hoynynge. The last two were portions of  2000 acres each to Thomas Blenerhassett, Esq., Norfolk and Sir Edward Blenerhassett of the same place. . The Blennerhassetts built what is now known as Crevenish Castle, near Kesh, which they called Castlehasset and established English workmen and tenants about them which they brought from their home near Norwich, in the county of Norfolk in the  East Anglia region of England.

Before becoming established in East Anglia the Blennerhassetts had lived in a village of the same name in Cumberland about twenty miles to the south-west of the city of Carlisle. The village of Blennerhassett today consists of a pub, post office and a village school with a small scattering of houses. So previous generations of the family who had lived on the Cumbrian coast just a short distance from Ulster also had a familiarity with Ireland which included the Blennerhassetts who had set themselves up in County Kerry area shortly before around Blennerville where they are still to be found today. These large of land had come from Queen Elizabeth 1 when the Earl of Desmond’s Estates were forfeited and so the family had a familiarity with the idea of Plantations before they ever came to Fermanagh.

Thomas Blennerhassett’s career before coming to Ireland included being Captain of Guernsey Castle. He was a literary man and wrote several books including, a book entitled, “Directions for the Plantation of Ulster.” He also issued a proclamation as a form of advertising to encourage others in the task of bringing “civilization” to Ireland. In part it reads,

“The County of Fermanagh, sometimes Maguire’s County rejoice. Many undertakers, all incorporated in mind as one, they, there with their followers, seek and are desirous to settle themselves. The islands of Lough Erne shall have habitations, a fortified corporation, market towns and many new erected manors, shall now so beautify her desolation that her inaccessible woods, with spaces made tractable, shall no longer nourish devourers, but by the sweet society of a loving neighbourhood, shall entertain humanity even in the best fashion. Go on worthy Gentlemen, fear not, the God of Heaven will assist and protect you.”

Thomas Blennerhassett has with him six persons, one a joiner, another a carpenter, and three other workmen with one tenant. He has built a boat, and has broken stones for lime and some burnt; and thirty trees felled; some squared and sawed; a fair large Irish house, with windows and rooms after the English manner, wherein is a new kitchen with a stone chimney and an oven. For cattle three horses, a mare and some thirteen head of other cattle.

There were two chief ways of generating wealth in Fermanagh in this early period of the Plantation; smelting low grade iron ore and the making of barrel staves. Both Blennerhassetts built iron works at Clonelly and Hassetts Fort which is now Castle Caldwell near Belleek while there was another nearby at Garrison. Boates indicates-woodcutters were needed, sawyers to saw, carpenters, masons, smiths, bellow makers, water leaders or water-course keepers to steer the water course, bucket makers to make containers for carrying ore and other materials, diggers of ore, carriers of ore, colliers to make charcoal, fillers to put ore and charcoal into the furnace, furnace keepers, firers and hammerers to look after the smelted iron and labourers to look after anything else:

“and for all this, the owners there of did greatly gain thereby, ordinarily not less than forty in the hundred per annum” ,” Iron works were a very profitable if highly destructive industry. Most of the Fermanagh produced iron being exported via Ballyshannon at £11 per ton and fetching £17 per ton in London.” In those days the favourite objects of solicitude were the manufacture of pipe-staves, and the development of the iron-works which were then supposed to be the true El Dorado of Irish enterprise—most people holding with Bacon that ‘Iron is a brave commodity where wood aboundeth.’ Both industries depended for their success upon the woods, which were accordingly drawn upon regardless of the consequences. From Munster whole shiploads of pipe-staves were exported, to the great profit of the proprietors and the great destruction of the woods; and Boate says, in his  Ireland’s Naturall History, “it is incredible what quantity of charcoal is consumed by one iron-work in a year.’’ These enterprises were carried on at a terrible price to the Irish landscape. This wholescale deforestation began the process which has resulted in Ireland being one of the least forested countries of Europe with only about 9% of the country covered in trees while for example France is about 40% afforested.

In summary therefore the vast majority of Fermanagh was planted by either English undertakers or servitors many of whom had an intimate knowledge of the area from their military experience or previous contact as planters in Ireland. They knew with plentiful forest they could make money from smelting iron or converting the forests into usable timber particularly barrel staves. They brought in numerous English settlers whose names are still found in the county, Barton, Archdale, Allingham, Cole, Chittick, Eves and there is even a solitary Blennerhassett. Fermanagh history needs to be rewritten to take account of this English aspect of its heritage.

I have been in East Anglia numerous times and in its libraries and public record offices and the amazing thing is that there is no record whatsoever of people from East Anglia coming to Fermanagh. There are ships lists of those going to Jamestown, down to the least commoner but a total amnesia about plantation families going to Ireland. Perhaps the overwhelming fame of America has totally eclipsed the memory of those who went to Ireland but this is a remarkable fact.

My particular interest in the plantation period concerns name of Eves, an East Anglian name from Old English meaning a dweller beside a forest. Three of that name came to Fermanagh with the Archdales as ploughmen. An Eleanor Eves is noted in the 1821 Census fragment for County Fermanagh as a lady’s maid to the wife of General Archdale. Unusually perhaps the Eves family remained Roman Catholic despite being closely allied and working for the landed Archdales who were Church of Ireland. It has been noted in the predominantly Protestant Kesh area that through the centuries the Eves could purchase any property in the locality despite their religion in a largely Protestant neighbourhood – presumably under the benevolent wing of the Archdales and they also were the operators of one of the first Post Offices in the village of Kesh. As one might say old family links from the Broads of East Anglia were maintained in the Lakelands of County Fermanagh.

JBC 7-11-2008.