1817. ERNE PACKET. Typhus deaths, Kościuszko, Robbery of the Belfast Mail.

25-12-1817. THE MARQUIS D’ANTONELLE, better known in the revolutionary history of France by the name of Pierre Antoine, died lately at Arles, his native place, aged seventy, he was a Member of the Convention, in which he acted a very distinguished part; was persecuted by Robespierre; pursued by the Directory; and neglected by Bonaparte. His political writings were numerous, and memorable for their ability. He was one of the principal Editors of the famous Journal des Hombres Libres. At the restoration of the Bourbons in 1814, he published a pamphlet, in which he openly embraced their cause.

25-12-1817. ADVANTAGES OF CLEANLINESS.—Tuesday, at a meeting of the Subscribers to the House of Recovery, or Fever Hospital, Waterford, it was stated from the proper Committee, that 1,120 dwellings, which had been whitewashed for the poor people, and provided with fresh straw beds, had since whitewashing, sent but four patients to the House. It would be difficult to conceive a stronger proof of the advantages of cleanliness.— Waterford Mirror.

25-12-1817. AT THE I’ECOLE ROYALE, IN PARIS, lectures are now delivering in the Persian, Arabic, Turkish, Armenian, and Modern Greek languages.

25-12-1817. THE INQUISITION, say the last accounts from Spain, has been very active for some time past, particularly in the Provinces, where several persons have been arrested, the greater part of them charges with Freemasonry.

25-12-1817. ON SUNDAY LAST THE following prayer for deliverance from the prevailing sickness or plague, was offered up in several of the churches in Limerick, “Oh Almighty God, who in thy wrath didst send a plague upon thine own people in the wilderness, for their obstinate rebellion against Moses and Aaron, and also in the time of King David, didst stay with the plague of pestilence three score and ten??

18-12-1817. A BOXING MATCH which took place on Monday near Westport, between two men of the names of Patrick McDonagh and Patrick Browne. The former, either in a fall, or by a blow from his opponent, received what appeared to be a slight wound on the forehead, when the persons present interfered and reconciled the combatants, and conducted McDonagh to his home, where he had scarcely arrived when he expired. He was in appearance a much stronger man than Browne. An inquest was held on the body of the deceased and a verdict of Manslaughter was returned against the survivor.

13-11-1817. KOSCIUSKO. The hero of Poland, the brave, disinterested and virtuous Kosciusko is stated, in an article from Lausanne, to have died at Soleure on the 15th instant. A singular felicity of reputation has even attended this amiable citizen and Warrior. — In the case of genuine liberty he fought against injustice, and shamed both the tyrants and Jacobins of the age. In his days of power, at the head of armies that adored his name, no false glory dazzled him nor corrupt ambition could betray him. He nobly resisted the foreign potentates who had laid waste his country; not because they were Kings and Emperors, but because they were invaders and oppressors. He combated with no rebellious sword—far no ambiguous object. When Poland lost her independence, Kosciusko lost his home; as she sunk he rose; but not upon her ruins. The Court of Russia would have allured this illustrious defender of the people whom he had subjugated, by temptations irresistible to vulgar minds: Bonaparte would have made him the flattered instrument of a spurious and hollow liberality to his countrymen: but Kosciusko saw that their lot was irretrievable; and his own he refused to change.— as a soldier and a patriot, in public life and in retirement, his principles were untainted, and his name unsullied: the Monarchs whom he opposed respected him: the factions who failed to seduce, forebore to slander him; and he would have been the Washington, had he not been the Wallace, of Poland.

(From the Internet) Andrzej Tadeusz Bonawentura Kościuszko (Andrew Thaddeus Bonaventure Kościuszko; February 4 or 12, 1746 – October 15, 1817 was a Polish–Lithuanian military engineer and a military leader who became a national hero in Poland, Lithuania, Belarus, and the United States. He fought in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth’s struggles against Russia and Prussia, and on the American side in the American Revolutionary War. As Supreme Commander of the Polish National Armed Forces, he led the 1794 Kościuszko Uprising. Kościuszko was born in February 1746 in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, in a village that is now in Belarus; his exact birthdate is unknown. At age 20, he graduated from the Corps of Cadets in Warsaw, Poland, but after the outbreak of a civil war involving the Bar Confederation in 1768, Kościuszko moved to France in 1769 to pursue further studies. He returned to Poland in 1774, two years after its First Partition, and took a position as tutor in Józef Sylwester Sosnowski’s household. After Kościuszko attempted to elope with his employer’s daughter and was severely beaten by the father’s retainers, he returned to France. In 1776, Kościuszko moved to North America, where he took part in the American Revolutionary War as a colonel in the Continental Army. An accomplished military architect, he designed and oversaw the construction of state-of-the-art fortifications, including those at West Point, New York. In 1783, in recognition of his services, the Continental Congress promoted him to brigadier general.

Returning to Poland in 1784, Kościuszko was commissioned a major general in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Army in 1789. After the Polish–Russian War of 1792 had resulted in the Second Partition of Poland, he organized an uprising against Russia in March 1794, serving as its Naczelnik (commander-in-chief). Russian forces captured him at the Battle of Maciejowice in October 1794. The defeat of the Kościuszko Uprising that November led to Poland’s Third Partition in 1795, which ended the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth’s independent existence for 123 years. In 1796, following the death of Tsaritsa Catherine the Great, Kościuszko was pardoned by her successor, Tsar Paul I, and he emigrated to the United States. A close friend of Thomas Jefferson, with whom he shared ideals of human rights, Kościuszko wrote a will in 1798 dedicating his American assets to the education and freedom of U.S. slaves. He eventually returned to Europe and lived in Switzerland until his death in 1817. The execution of his will later proved difficult and the funds were never used for the purpose he had intended.

13-11-1817. MARRIED, In St. Mark’s Church, by the Rev. Joseph Druitt, James Johnson, of Drum, County of Monaghan, Esq. to Miss E. Reeves, daughter of the late D. H. Reeves, Esq. and niece to Colonel Reeves of the 27th Regiment.

13-11-1817. On the 21st inst. at Eyrecourt, Walter Lambert, Esq. eldest son of Walter Lambert, Esq. of Castle Lambert, county Galway, to the amiable and accomplished Anne, eldest daughter of Giles Eyre, Esq. of Eyrecourt-Castle, and Lieut. Col. of the Galway Militia.

13-11-1817. DIED. On Saturday last, in the prime of life, of Typhus fever, the Rev. James McKenna, Parish Priest of Tempo. — A young man of the most amiable character and exemplary conduct, and deeply lamented by his acquaintances, and congregation.

On the same day, of Typhus fever, Mrs, McDonald, wife of Mr. Edward McDonald of this town. Baker.

On Monday morning, of Typhus fever, at Mount-Irvine, near Clogher, in the prime of life, Surgeon George Irvine, R, N., son of Mr. Acheson Irvine, of Derrygore, near this town.

At Strabane, on the 20th ult. of  Typhus fever, John Glasse, Esq. Attorney.

On the same day, of Typhus fever, Mr. Spence, Saddler.

At same place, on the 2nd inst., of Typhus fever, Mrs. Perry, wife of Mr. John Perry.

At same place, on the 31st ult. after a few days illness, of Typhus fever, Mr. Adam Burrell.

On the 31st ult., Mrs. Saunders, wife of Mr. Saunders, of Foyle College, Derry.

In Bishop Street, Derry, Mr. Billington.

In Ferry-quay-street, Derry, Mrs. Kelly, in the prime of life.

On the 1st. inst., near Sligo, deeply regretted by all who knew him, Charles Dawson, Esq. A. M., late first assistant in Sligo School.—Amongst his numerous attainments, he had acquired some knowledge of medicine, which he applied in his leisure hours towards the relief of the sick poor—and in his visits of mercy he caught the fever, which in a few days hurried him, in the prime of life, to another World, where, we trust, he “now rests from his Labours, and his Works have followed him.”

At Swords, on the 5th inst., of Typhus fever, caught in the execution of his clerical duties, the Rev. James Wallace a Gentleman regretted by all who knew him.

On the 30th, of Typhus fever, Anna, only surviving child of John Fetherston H., Esq. of Grangemore, County of Westmeath.

(From the Internet.) Typhus is any of several similar diseases caused by Rickettsia bacteria.[1] The name comes from the Greek typhus (τύφος) meaning smoky or hazy, describing the state of mind of those affected with typhus. The causative organism Rickettsia is an obligate intracellular parasitic bacterium that cannot survive for long outside living cells. It is transmitted to humans via external parasites such as lice, fleas, and ticks. While “typhoid” means “typhus-like”, typhus and typhoid fever are distinct diseases caused by different genera of bacteria. The following signs/symptoms refer to epidemic typhus as it is the most important of the typhus group of diseases. Signs and symptoms begin with sudden onset of fever, chills, headache, and other flu-like symptoms about 1 to 2 weeks after being infected. Five to nine days after the symptoms have started; a rash typically begins on the trunk and spreads to the extremities. This rash eventually spreads over most of the body, sparing the face, palms, and soles. Signs of meningoencephalitis begin with the rash and continue into the second or third weeks. Other signs of meningoencephalitis include sensitivity to light (photophobia), altered mental status (delirium), or coma. Untreated cases are often fatal.

In historical times “Gaol Fever”,  was common in English prisons, and is believed by modern authorities to have been Typhus. It often occurred when prisoners were crowded together into dark, filthy rooms where lice spread easily. Thus “Imprisonment until the next term of court” was often equivalent to a death sentence. Prisoners brought before the court sometimes infected members of the court itself. Following the assizes held at Oxford in 1577, later deemed the Black Assize, over 300 died from gaol fever, including Sir Robert Bell, Lord Chief Baron of the Exchequer. The Black Assize of Exeter 1586 was another notable outbreak. During the Lent assizes court held at Taunton in 1730, gaol fever caused the death of the Lord Chief Baron, as well as the High Sheriff, the sergeant, and hundreds of others. During a time when persons were executed for capital offenses, more prisoners died from ‘gaol fever’ than were put to death by all the public executioners in the British realm. In 1759, an English authority estimated that each year a quarter of the prisoners had died from gaol fever. In London, gaol fever frequently broke out among the ill-kept prisoners of Newgate Prison and then moved into the general city population. In May 1750, the Lord Mayor of London, Sir Samuel Pennant, and a large number of court personnel were fatally infected in the courtroom of the Old Bailey, which adjoined Newgate Prison.

13-11-1817. ROBBERY OF THE BELFAST MAIL COACH. Friday evening, about ten minutes after six o’clock, as the Belfast Day Mail Coach, on its way to Dublin, arrived at Lissen-hall, a short distance beyond Swords, the Coachman found his way obstructed by two carts being placed across the road. Soon afterwards, a body of armed men, ten or twelve in number, appeared; the front horses were seized, and, about the same time, the banditti fired three shots, one of which passed through the hat of one of the guards, Luke Rocheford and unfortunately took effect in the back part of his head, but, we trust, without any serious result. The passengers, eleven in number — seven outside and four inside—many of them females, were then rifled in the most brutal manner, of the valuable effects and property about them; which was a small gold watch, maker’s name, Arnold and Sons, London, and supposed to be Number 217; a gold seal, and the initials marked upon it, W. S., in Irish characters; also, a gold watch, maker’s name, Thomas Moss, Ludgate-street, London; a great variety of bank notes, among which was one of the Bank of Ireland, for five pounds, dated 4th December, 1816. We give this hasty description of those articles, in the hope of their leading to a detection. Two artillery men passed by at the time, but took no notice of the proceedings, more than enquiring, “what was the matter,” and being informed, they went forward quietly- Those men can easily be ascertained to give evidence, if necessary. A carman was also  stopped, but no molestation offered to him.— While the robbers were engaged in plundering the passengers, a post coach came up, in which were the Marquis of Donegal, his son, (Lord Belfast,) and another gentleman, all well armed. An attempt was made to stop the post coach, but, by the exertions of the coachman, in whipping the horses over a large trunk, they most fortunately escaped. They had not proceeded far, when they met a party of horse patrole, who immediately went in quest of the robbers: a foot patrole had also been sent in that direction, in consequence of a robbery having been committed the night previous, at the house of Mr. Harckney. We have the pleasure to state that none of the passengers in the Belfast coach have suffered any personal injury, and also that the entire of the mail-bags have been preserved. We have little doubt that some of the delinquents will be apprehended. The Post Office will, of course, do its duty; and we hope that the poor wounded guard, who preserved the mail bags, will not go without attention and reward. Mr. Farrell requested the attendance of the respective passengers at the Head Police office, this morning when a further investigation will go forward before the Magistrates; and we cannot omit noticing the urbanity and politeness of Lord Belfast, in disclosing and furnishing us with such particulars of this transaction, as came within his immediate knowledge or observation. Carrick’s Morning Post. Five persons have been apprehended for the above Robbery, and after a long examination on Monday last, at the Head Police Office, Dublin, three of them were fully committed for trial.

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1942 Fermanagh.

2-5-1942 ENNISKILLEN GROCER’S SUCCESSFUL APPEAL. Ernest Colvin, grocer, High St., Enniskillen, appealed at Enniskillen Quarter. Sessions on Thursday against a penalty of £50 imposed at Enniskillen Petty Sessions on a charge of knowingly harbouring seven sacks of coffee beans with intent to evade the prohibition of export thereon. Mr. J. Cooper, D.L., Crown Solicitor, said that after Colvin had been convicted they succeeded in arresting a man from the Free State named Keenan, .for whom, this coffee was, and he was fined £50. When the case same on against Keenan they had interviewed Mr. Colvin and his assistant, and got them to come and give evidence against Keenan. In view of this fact the Customs Authorities would agree to this penalty, being reduced to £25. Mr. E. C. Ferguson, D. L. (for Colvin) agreed to this course, and accordingly his Honour affirmed the conviction, but reduced the penalty to £25.

2-5-1942 WHISKEY SEIZURE BY FLORENCECOURT POLICE. Sergeant Ryan and Constable Redpath, Florencecourt, on Saturday evening stopped a car at Drumcarn, Belnaleck, Co. Fermanagh, and on searching it found 6 five naggin bottles of whiskey, four similar bottles of wine and two large bottles of gin, as well as a dozen egg cups, a quantity of tobacco and cigarettes, a showerproof coat and quantity of sweepstake tickets, all of which were seized, together with the car. The driver was taken into custody,, and on. Sunday afternoon was allowed out on £20 bail to appear at next Enniskillen Petty Sessions. Major Dickie, R.M., attended at the Barracks, on Sunday afternoon, and the car driver was ,present with his solicitor, but no court was held, the reason being that the magistrate could not discharge any judicial function on a Sunday, though he can sit as a magistrate. The case could only have been .proceeded with had the man sufficient money to pay any fine which, if he had been convicted, might have been imposed. Had the case been heard and a fine inflicted, the order would have been unenforceable, as the Court was held on Sunday.

2-5-1942 FIRE AT CASTLECOOLE. BUILDINGS DESTROYED. An outbreak of fire occurred on Saturday afternoon in outhouses at Castlecoole, Enniskillen, the residence of the Earl of Belmore. The Enniskillen Town Brigade and the Auxiliary Fire Service, both under Mr. James Donnelly, town surveyor, receiving notification at ten minutes to one, were on the spot before one clock a quick turn-out which probably saved extensive buildings because the fire had gained a firm hold on the solid buildings and was burning fiercely. The efforts of the Brigades were chiefly directed towards confining the outbreak. Until. 2.30 p. m, the battle with the flames continued, ending only when about forty yards of the buildings had been destroyed roof and floors being burned out. The A.F.S. Brigade was under the immediate command of Mr. Freddy Bleakley with Mr. J. Lusted, A.F.S. chief in attendance.

2-5-1942 PARTY VOTE ECHO. FARTAGH COTTAGE TENANCY. An echo of a recent Enniskillen Rural Council party vote on a cottage tenancy was heard at Derrygonnelly Petty Sessions, on Friday, when the Council was granted a decree for possession of a cottage at Fartagh, against Miss Mary Millar. Miss Millar’s father was the tenant until his death a few months ago. Miss Millar applied for the cottage, but it was granted to a Unionist by a party vote of the Rural Council. Miss Millar is a Catholic.

2-5-1942 SEIZED BICYCLE AT BELLEEK BARRIER. JUDGE RECOMMENDS RETURN ON PAYMENT OF DUTY. Are bicycles liable to purchase tax? Although, according to Mr, George Dixon, Surveyor of customs and Excise for County Fermanagh the tax is collected throughout Great Britain and the Six Counties on bicycles, Mr. R. A. Herbert, L.B. (Messrs. Maguire and Herbert, Enniskillen contended during the course of an appeal at Enniskillen Quarter Sessions on Monday, before Deputy Judge Ellison, K.C., that the wording of the Section of the Act governing the matter makes bicycles not liable.

The appeal was one brought by Terence McGowan, of Ross, Tullyrossmearn, Co. Fermanagh, against an order of Major Dickie, R. M., forfeiting a bicycle under the Customs Acts. When cross-examining Mr. Dixon, the Customs Surveyor, Mr. Herbert referred the witness to the Finance Act No. 2, 1940, which created the Purchase-Tax, and stated that the schedule set out goods that were chargeable with purchase-tax. In the first column (that setting out goods charged at the basic rate of one third were the words: Road Vehicles and Cycles (whether mechanically propelled or not) being vehicles and cycles constructed or adapted solely or mainly for the carriage of passengers.” Mr. Dixon said that was the Section, which gave authority to charge purchase tax on bicycles. Mr. Herbert — Who would be the passenger on a bicycle?—He is his own. passenger. It is being definitely charged and paid all over the United Kingdom. It is time it was questioned. Mr. Herbert said a passenger was already interpreted in law. This boy cycling on this bicycle could not be said to be a passenger. Judge Ellison said he did not think the language in the Section was very neat for the purpose.

Mr. Herbert — It is very far from neat. He further argued that a machine constructed for one person to ride did not make the machine one “constructed for the carriage of passengers.” His Honour held against Mr. Herbert who raised the paint because one of the taxes the appellant was stated to have failed to pay was his purchase tax. Giving evidence for the respondent,  Customs Officer George Forrest, Belleek, stated McGowan was cycling past the barrier there, not stopping, when witness called on him to stop, seeing that he was riding a new bicycle. McGowan in answer to witness’s questions said he belonged to Kiltyclogher, but produced a national registration, card with his address at Ross, Tullyrossmearn. He asked him to account for the fact that he had stated he was from Leitrim, while he was from Ross, and McGowan said he lived at both places off and on, and that he had been, living in the Six Counties for ten years. He said he had borrowed the bicycle from his brother in Kiltyclogher as his own had been stolen. He then offered to pay whatever was necessary. Witness seized the bicycle and an order for forfeiture was granted at the Petty Sessions. “There has not been one single instance,” said witness, “of where a bicycle has been smuggled and has been confirmed as having been smuggled into the Six Counties where the bicycle has not been stated to have been a borrowed bicycle although the bicycle has actually been new at the moment. In cross-examination by Mr. Herbert, witness said cyclists should stop, and go into the Customs hut if necessary.

Do you stop all cyclists? —I do if I am on the road. We all pass these huts and see what occurs?—Sometimes it is after five o’clock (when the Customs hut closes). George Dixon, Customs Surveyor at Enniskillen, stated a Customs duty of 30 per cent, ad valorem was chargeable on Eire-built machines unless satisfactory evidence was produced (a certificate of origin from the manufacturer) that the machine was Empire-made and that the cost of materials and labour involved reached a certain percentage. Mr. Herbert—Could it have been of anything but Empire origin in these days? –Witness stated he admitted the present circumstances, but still the certificate was necessary. Mr, Herbert—Playing with the law like a child, isn’t it?—No, it isn’t. Would you swear this is a foreign article?— I cannot swear it, but it is for the importer to displace the prima facie charge by providing evidence. Were these things drawn to the attention of’ the importer? —It is the importer’s duty, if he wishes to claim preference, to make a declaration that he claims preference.

Don’t you think it would only be fair before putting Customs duty into force that the attention of the importer should be drawn to the provisions? —Undoubtedly, if the citizen had come into the hut and stated he had imported it. Mr. Herbert—A sort of Please, sir, can I pass? Mr, Herbert said McGowan came from Kiltyclogher but had been staying with friends in Ross for some years off and on. This was the smallest thing he had ever come across in the Customs line The same sort of point was raised before where a solicitor in Donegal drove his, car up to the barrier and the Customs seized it as having been imported, but the car was subsequently returned. This boy came along a proper route at a proper time and his bicycle was seized. He had gone a hundred yards or two into Six- County territory. It was straining the law very far to say a certificate of origin was required. Why didn’t they tell him to go back? When he found out the position the boy offered to pay. Mr. Cooper said this was not the only case brought up at the same place. The snuggling of bicycles into the Six Counties was a wholesale business. Mr. Herbert—There is no evidence of that.

Judge Ellison said he should be inclined to confirm the order and say he thought this boy should be let off if he paid what he should pay. Mr. Cooper—-We will forward it to the Customs, and they will obey your Honour’s recommendation. Mr. Herbert said Major Dickie had stated that if the brother had appeared to say the bicycle belonged to him he would have given it back. Unfortunately the brother could not appear as he was engaged in munitions work in England. His Honour—I think Major Dickie’s view of that was the right one.

25-4-1942. BELNALECK YOUTH’S LAPSE. A Belnaleck youth’s lapse led to his appearance at Enniskillen Petty Sessions on .Monday, before Major Dickie, R.M., charged with, larceny. The defendant was John Patrick Boyle, Toneyteague, and the articles concerned were a coat value £4, a silver watch value £4, a gold watch valued about £5, and the sum of 5/-. District Inspector Peacocke, who prosecuted, said that the silver watch, coat, and the sum of 5/- had been recovered. Constable Ewart gave evidence of a statement made by defendant, and, in reply to Mr. P. J. Flanagan, LL.B. (defending), said that defendant made a clean breast of the whole thing. Mr. Flanagan said that this had come as a complete surprise to defendant’s parents and everybody else, as heretofore defendant had borne an unblemished character. “He says he simply did not know what came over him,” said Mr. Flanagan, who added that defendant was prepared to make restitution for the gold watch that had not been recovered. His Worship bound over defendant for two years in his own bail of £10 and one surety of £10. He also ordered him to pay within three months the sum of £5 to Mrs. Cathcart, Belnaleck, the owner of the gold watch, and 31/6 costs of the prosecution.

25-4-1942. £2 FINES FOR BAD LORRY BRAKES. ENNISKILLEN COURT CASES. At Enniskillen Petty Sessions on Monday Thomas Coogan, Gortnacallon, Newtownbutler, was summoned, as owner, for permitting a motor lorry to be used with inefficient brakes.  James P. Connolly, Cloniston, Clones, was summoned as driver. Sergt. Sherrard said as a result of an accident he examined the motor lorry owned by Coogan and driven by Connolly. At 20 miles per hour Connolly was unable to stop the vehicle with the band brake before travelling 25 yards. The vehicle travelled a similar distance before being stopped by the footbrake. Constable Wilson, inspector of vehicles, said both brakes were defective on all wheels except the offside front. That was not due to the effects of the accident. Connolly did not appear. Coogan, in evidence, said the driver had full charge of the vehicle, and witness did not know that the brakes were defective. They had been adjusted a fortnight before. District-Inspector Peacocke—Can you say why Connolly is not here to-day?—I cannot; he was to be here. A fine of 40s was imposed on each summons. Sergt. Codd said both defendants were from the Twenty-Six Counties, and had temporary Six-County addresses.

25-4-1942. FRUITLESS SEARCH. TWO HOUR INCIDENT AT BELLEEK. A party of about thirty-six young men from the Enniskillen, district attended the great ceilidhe in O’Carroll’s Palais de Danse, Bundoran on Wednesday night of last week, to which parties came from the Six Counties. When the Enniskillen bus reached Belleek, just across the Border, in the Six Counties, on the return journey at about 4 a.m. they were met by a party of Enniskillen police under Head-Constable Thornton. The bus driver was ordered to proceed to the barracks. On arrival there, the dance patrons were taken into the barracks in groups of two and three at a time and were closely searched. Every particle of paper and article in the possession of each was taken out, placed on a table and examined thoroughly. The men had to take off their coats and these were gone through; several of the youths were made take off their boots and socks, which were minutely scrutinised. Three rooms at the barracks were engaged by the police party for the purpose and while the search proceeded three constables did duty with the young men in the bus whose turn had to come. In all the search took almost two hours and the bus did not .reach Enniskillen until after 8 a.m. An American who was on the bus, was not interfered with. The bus conveying the party from Belleek to the ceilidhe was also searched.

25-4-1942. A. O. H. DEVENISH DIVISION. The quarterly meeting, of the above Division was held in the A.O.H. Hall, Brollagh, on Sunday, 12th inst., the President occupying the chair. A vote of sympathy was passed to the relatives of the late Terence Keown, Larrigan, also to the relatives of the late James Reilly, Corrakeel. The motion was passed in silence.

 

Land League 1942 by Eamon Anderson.

25-4-1942. FOLK TALES OF FERMANAGH. BY EAMON ANDERSON. It is truly said that the history of Ireland is written in ballads. Before the days of writing, two thousand or more years ago, the old Gaelic bards of Ireland composed all historical happenings in verse which were committed to memory and handed down for countless generations. Irish historical poetry begun with Amergin, the son of Milesius, about fifteen centuries before Christ, and continued ever since, generation after generation, down to our own day. Some of the early Gaelic historical poems, such as the Táin Bó Cúailnge (Great Cattle Spoil of Cooley), amounted to hundreds of thousands of lines. No wonder that in the Gaelic Ireland of the past it took twenty years’ hard study for the Bardic Order. Not only had a man to be naturally a poet himself, but had also to commit to memory all the Gaelic poetry up to his own time. If we add to that all the ballads and songs that have been composed in English during the last century or so in every parish and corner of this island of ours, and got it all printed in books, it would fill the Fermanagh Co. Library.

So that is the reason that we know so much about the Ireland of the past from the earliest times down to our own day.

For some weeks past I have been writing about the Land League days which many, of our readers can remember. It would be interesting to know how many are alive to-day of the countless thousands who attended the great Land League meeting in Enniskillen on 2nd, of October, 1887. That meeting would have been almost forgotten to-day but for the ballad which Frank Maguire composed to commemorate it. I am going to publish that ballad here this week, and you will find that it describes the meeting far better than any dry prose history could do.’

I have mentioned Frank Maguire in these articles before. He was a fanner and lived his lifetime in the townland of Ruscaw, a mile north of Kinawley village, the next townland to Drumlish, where I was born myself. I never remember him, as he passed away before my time, but his songs and ballads are living still in this part of the country. When I was a child I thought that the few townlands around us were the most wonderful place’s in the world, and I have the same opinion yet! Ruscaw produced two of our parish bards, Frank Maguire and the old school master, Michael Maguire, In Teravally, a short half-mile away, lived Charley Farmer, another of our parish bards. In Drumbinnis lived two of our noted shanachies whom I have often quoted here, John Maguire and Owen Jones. Once I said to Mr. Cahir Healy, who, alas; is far from us to-day, “I think our parish of Kinawley is the best in Fermanagh for folklore and traditions, and bards and ballads.” “I agree with you,’’ said he. “and anyway, that is the right spirit for a person to have—to regard his own townland or parish as the hub and centre of the universe. If every townland would preserve its own traditions we would then be able to preserve those of all Ireland.”

So now here is Frank Maguire’s ballad on the Enniskillen Land League Meeting. The Dean mentioned chairman was the Very Rev. Dean Bermingham, then parish priest of Enniskillen.

“Bold Redmond” was Willie Redmond, then M.P. for North Fermanagh, who was then a fiery young patriot, even fiery enough at that time to please that most ardent Irish Nationalist, Seumas MacManus, the famous Irish writer, who was in Enniskillen at the time. To those of us who remember 1914 and later times and how the old Irish Parliamentary Party lost much of their early Nationalist enthusiasm, this will seem rather strange. But in later days they apparently forgot Parnell’s oft-repeated warnings. Parnell had only a limited belief in the efficiency of Parliamentary agitation. He was of the opinion that without a well-organised public opinion in Ireland his power in Parliament would be slight. He publicly stated that long association with the House of Commons would destroy the integrity of any Irish Party, and publicly advised the Irish people to keep a keen watch  on the conduct of their representatives in the British House of  Commons at all times. As I say, the Irish Party, and many of its people must have forgotten these warnings in later times, else they would never have agreed, even temporarily, to the so-called Home Rule Act of 1914, which merely empowered the Irish people to play at a “Parliament” in Dublin, whose enactments could be vetoed by either the British Lord Lieutenant or the British Parliament, or ruled illegal by the High Court of Justice, and, alas, providing that Ireland’s finances would remain chiefly in England’s hands, and also for the first time in history, agreeing to the partition of Ireland. We get an idea of how the Irish people advanced in the seven years after, when we consider that although Griffith and Collins “Treaty,’’ and “Free State” gave control over tariffs and finance, and many other great powers of all kinds, yet a civil war was fought against it. The Constitution of Eire, of recent times goes a long step further again and gives far-reaching powers, and yet the partition question cannot yet be solved.

So here now for the Land League Song.

 

ENNISKLILEN MONSTER             DEMONSTRATION.

 

Rejoice, ye sons of Erin, for old Ireland shall be free,

The bard’s inclined to tell his mind for all that he did see.

On the 2nd of October, right well I mind the date,

When our Members they came over, their minds for to relate.

 

That morning, as the bell did ring, to chapel we did go,

And fervently we all did Pray against the daring foe,

Returning from the altar, with a mark upon our brow,

Saying freedom for our country, where is coercion now.

 

With horse and foot we took the road,

each shepherd led his flock,

We arrived in Enniskillen at the hour of two o’clock

From Portora gates to Belmore Street was crowded with the throng,

No man to yield, but for the field in thousands we marched on.

 

For to make up their number, I might go through the count,

There is no rule in learning could tell the full amount.           ,

I saw the hand of Shane O’Neill on the green flag from Tyrone,

And the royal band of Fintona, they played us “Garryowen.”

 

At the Jail Square I rested there to take another view,

When Lowry, off the Monument, he asked me “Is that you?’

And are these the Derry Prentice Boys, or when did yous leave home?

I took you for another man, I thought you were Maglone.”

 

“We’re not the Derry Prentice Boys, nor yet from Sandy Row,

For our Parliament is landed in old Ireland once more.

We have the men of Ulster here, our cause for to maintain,

Our member is bold Redmond, and our chairman, is the Dean.”

 

North and South Fermanagh, they made a grand display.

With Kinawley and Kilskeery, and the boys from Lisnaskea.

From Maguiresbridge to Monaghan, and Tempo in the glen,

With Montiagh lads and Macken men, who fought their way and won.

 

We had Belleek and Bellashanny, and the men from sweet Roslea,

With Mullaghdun and Arney like an army in array,

And noble Enniskillen, with good order and command,

Their cry was “No coercion, but freedom for our land.”

 

And now a few words about the song to explain certain points in it. “Maglone” was “Barney Maglone,” a beloved Enniskillen poet of those days who used to write in the Fermanagh vernacular. His real name was Wilson, and I don’t think he was entirely nationalist in politics, in fact he did not express any opinion on politics. At any rate, when making verses he used to go and stand and ‘chat’ with the statute of Sir Lowry Cole on the top of the monument on the Forthill to gain inspiration. So, according to Frank’s imagination in this ballad Sir Lowry mistook Frank for “Barney Maglone,” and the immense procession for the “Derry Prentice Boys” who were paying a visit to the town of Enniskillen. And a very ghostly visit it would be for, like Sir .Lowry himself, the Prentice Boys had departed this life. They closed the gates of “Derry against King James’s Army in 1685, which is generally considered one of the brave deeds of Irish history, but, unfortunately, on the wrong side! Not that Irish Nationalists ever thought much of King James, and always considered him an old coward anyway, who ran away from the Boyne,, and from Ireland. It was really for Ireland, and not for King James, that the Irish were fighting in that war, and it’s the gallant Patrick Sarsfield was the real hero of it, a man who was admired for his bravery even by those who were fighting against him. Probably Sir Lowry, or his statue, or his ghost, as in life he belonged to the unnational and aristocratic party, would much rather see the Derry ’Prentice Boys marching the town in ghostly array, than a great demonstration of people standing for what he would consider the “preposterous” idea of a free Ireland, and the still more “preposterous” idea of “The Land for the People,” and not for the landlords!”

Belashanny is spelt the old way here, as in the ballad, instead of Ballyshannon, which is a modern corruption. “Bela-shanny” is the phonetic pronunciation of the old Gaelic name of the place (Beal atha na Seannach). Bands and banners from all over the place mentioned, and a lot more attended the meeting.

Up till recent years we had the old Land League banner preserved in Kinawley inscribed “Kinawley to the Front. Away with Landlordism.” We carried it in all processions up to 1917, when we changed it for the Tricolour. But the same three colours were also on the old banner, only fixed in a different way— a white cross on a green background, yellow shamrocks and a white fringe. Also a life-size picture of Charles Stewart Parnell.  As1 said before, there must be many people still in Fermanagh and neighbouring counties who attended the great Enniskillen demonstration of 1887. Seumas MacManus admired this ballad so much that he has included it in his latest book, “The Rocky Road to Dublin,’’ which is the author’s own life story.

But there are a great many other local ballads of the Land League days which never have yet been in print which I must publish in these columns so that they will live in future ages.

And now a word about Frank Maguire, the composer. Like many of the old generation, he got little or no schooling, and only “met the scholars,” as they used to say. He only got into the second standard at a hedge school. But my uncle Joe used to write down all his verses, and also the verses of old Master Michael Maguire. So Seumas MacManus christened him “Secretary Joe” in the poem which he made commemorating old Master Maguire—

“His songs shall be recorded By Secretary Joe.”

Frank Maguire was a great humourist. At that time there was a family in this district called the “Quaker Crawfords.” Whether some of the family in times gone by belonged to the religious persuasion called Quakers I know not, but at any rate they were never called anything only the Quakers. Frank used to “kailey” in it, and was very “great” in it. They had a big farm of land, and often sold a lot of meadows. They were not satisfied with how auctions were going one summer, so Frank said to them, “If yiz give me the sale of your meadows I will get you the best price in the country.” “But sure you are no auctioneer. ” “No matter.” says Frank, “I can be an auctioneer for wan day anyhow, and I’ll bring Joe Anderson to write down the bids.” So the auction was advertised by word of mouth from mountain to lough, and the whole country gathered in hundreds to see the fun of the thing. Frank started to auction the plots with hammer and all, like a real auctioneer, and Joe with notebook and pencil took down the ‘bids.’ Any advance on thirty bob for this plot. Any advance. Come on now, and don’t be like beggar men. Give the landlord’s rent of it itself.” And so on. Carried away by the fun, many men bought meadows that day and gave a good price for them, that did not want hay at all. The end of it was that the meadows fetched far more than any auctioneer could get, and that auction is talked of to this day. There was a man in the country at that time nicknamed “Pat the Moat,” and he was very fond of taking near-cuts, even tramping across fields of crop and vegetables. Going daily to work one summer he had made a regular “pad-road” across the middle of Frank’s field of corn so Frank met him one day on the road and gave him this warning in verse—

O Clatty Moat, you’re nothing loath, your habits to maintain,

Marchin’ o’er me cornfield, and comin’ back again.

But if you do not stop it, and from it don’t refrain,

I’ll meet you on some evenin’ and tramp you in a drain.

Frank had many original sayings. There was a woman in the countryside who had a lot of style and polish, but very little real good breeding, Frank’s comment on her was: “In spite of Art, Nature will appear.”

He once took the contract of opening a drain, in the village which served the barrack and other houses. He had to carry the drain along the edge of a field, and the owner of the field came like a lion and objected to the right-of-way of the water that way. The row rose higher and higher, and at last a villager named Paddy Flynn came on the scene. Frank saluted him in this way:—

“Paddy Flynn yon are welcome in,

In dignity and glory

To join our force, yon are not loath,

to drive away this Tory!’’

Paddy Flynn, by the way, was father of the late Mr. John Flynn, of Enniskillen. In this country the words “wit” and ‘sense’ are often used as to mean the same thing. Frank, however, used to distinguish between them by saying, “The want of wit is as bad as the want of sense!” By “sense” he correctly meant one of the five senses, i.e., hearing, sight, etc. What he meant to convey was that the want of wit. i.e. foolishness, was as bad a failure as to be blind, or deaf, or dumb, There are many more articles to be written about our parish bards, and many songs of their’s which will be published at a future date.