October 1915.

Fermanagh Times October 7th 1915.  CLONES.  CAPTAIN J. C. PARKE HOME AGAIN.  Captain Parke the famous lawn tennis champion and international Rugby player, who was wounded at the Dardanelles on the 10th of August last and spent some time in hospital in Malta, afterwards undergoing treatment in England, has returned to his home in Clones.  Although looking very well he has not yet completely recovered from a wound in the wrist.  Soon after the outbreak of war, Captain Parke, then a practicing solicitor in Clones with his brother, Mr. W. A. Parke, solicitor, obtained a commission in the 6th Leinster Regiment and in a very short time was promoted.  He was in the famous landing with the Australians, at the spot since known as Anzac Cove and took part in the fighting in that neighbourhood for three days – one of the most desperate struggles in the history of the operations on the Gallipoli Peninsula.  On the third day while defending a shallow trench, which was undergoing a heavy bombardment from the Turkish guns, a shrapnel shell burst close to him, and he was struck by several of the bullets and splinters, but fortunately in no vital part.  He lost a great quantity of blood, but owing to the prompt treatment he received and his splendid physique, his recovery was rapid, and in less than a month he was able to sail for England.  Although a bullet went through his wrist from side to side it appears that no bone was broken or sinew torn and it is hoped that he may regain complete use of it.  As soon as he is sufficiently recovered he will rejoin his regiment.

Fermanagh Times October 7th 1915.  CYCLING ACCIDENT.  Mr. Patrick Clarke, Magheraveely, Clones, rural postmen in that district, was throw off his bicycle in Fermanagh Street, Clones on Saturday night and sustained a broken leg.

Fermanagh Times October 7th 1915.  LIEUTENANT-COMMANDER GARTSIDE TIPPING, R.N.  The death of Lieutenant Commander Gartside Tipping, R.N. reported from the front is another of those grave incidents that bring home more intimately to us here in Fermanagh the tragedy of the war.  The deceased gentleman was a son of the late Captain Gartside Tipping of Rossferry, near Derrylin, one of Lough Erne’s most picturesque residences, afterwards occupied by the Hon. Cyril Ward on his marriage with a daughter of the Earl of Erne.  He was a brother of Mrs. Richardson, of Rossfad, with whom profound sympathy will be felt in her bereavement.  The family are relatives of the Earl of Erne.  The Lieutenant-Commander, although one of the oldest officers actively engaged in the British navy, being 67 years of age, gallantly offered his services on the outbreak of the war.  When the present King, then Prince George, was undergoing an early course of naval instruction he was lieutenant on of the Royal yacht.  For many years he was inspector of lifeboats in the Irish and West Lancashire districts, and he was well known at the various lifeboat stations on the Antrim and Down coasts.

Fermanagh Herald October 9th. 1915.  LISNASKEA GUARDIANS AND THE ATTENDANCE OF MEMBERS.  It was some time after 12 o’clock before the meeting could be commenced owing to the absence of a quorum, and the minutes were disposed of.  The Chairman drew attention to the fact that laterally there had been a very poor attendance of members, and suggested that it would be advisable for the Board to pass a resolution to the effect that any member who absented himself anyway frequently from the meetings should be penalised.  A lot of them, he said, only put in an appearance when there was a job on, and those men, he was of the opinion, should be disqualified altogether.  The Clerk suggested that the Porter be sent down the town to see if any members were there.  The Chairman objected to this and said if the members did not think it worth their while to attend those who did should not send after them.  This concluded the discussion.

Fermanagh Times October 14th 1915. THE GREAT ARTILLERY which so easily demolished the forts of Liege and Namur consisted of a gun weighing 87 tons, with a foundation of 37 tons for the carriage.  Two hundred men were engaged in the manipulation of it, and 25 or 26 hours were needed to erect the gun.  The shell weighed 8 cwts, and was 5 feet 4 inches long.  Twelve railway carriages were required to transport the gun. It was fired by electricity from a distance of ¼ mile, and the cost of each shot was £500.

Fermanagh Times October 14th 1915.  DERRYLIN PETTY SESSIONS.  At the above petty sessions Richards Meyers of Gortgorgan was fined £2 10 shillings with the recommendation that it be reduced to 10 shillings for carrying a gun without a licence.  A large number of persons were fined for using vehicles without lights and several were also fined for being drunk while in charge of horses and carts on the public road.

Fermanagh Times October 14th 1915.  LOCAL MILITARY NOTES.  Lieutenant John Irvine, of the 4th Royal Enniskillen Fusiliers who had been serving at the Dardanelles some time past with the Munster Fusiliers and whom we referred to in these columns last week arrived home yesterday at Killadeas.  He was gassed in action. We are glad to learn he is recovering well.  His elder brother, Lieutenant Gerard, is officer in charge of the Machine-gun Section with the 11th Battalion Inniskillings on the continent.  It is interesting to note the Major J. G. C.  Irvine, D. L. father of the gallant young officers, although incapacitated from taking an active part in the present great struggle was all through the South Africa Campaign and it was while fighting there that he received the injuries which now a preclude him from active service with the forces.  Although not able to go himself he has sent his only two sons, who are worthily maintaining the fighting traditions of the Irvine family in the British Army.

Jack Graham, son of the late Dr. Graham, Irvinestown, has just arrived home from South Africa looking fit and well after 11 months hard fighting under General Botha.  He, like Mr. Thomas Young of Fivemiletown has the unique experience of fighting against Botha in the Boer War and now under him against the Germans.

Fermanagh Times October 14th 1915.  MEMBERS PREVIOUSLY WARNED BY THE COUNTY SURVEYOR.  A SALUTARY LESSON FOR THE FUTURE.  In our columns “Things people want to know on the 9th of July in 1914 we queried: – How the ratepayers throughout Fermanagh like the announcement that the newly elected County Council shows decided signs of being the most reckless in expenditure of public money that has ever held office in this county?  This body made a reckless start on Thursday by passing over £2,300 worth of works on roads, many of which were condemned by the County Surveyor as being both illegal and unnecessary and which were strongly opposed by the Unionist members present.  In addition to all this expenditure, provisional proposals for a further £2,461 15shillings worth of roads and other works have already been handed in for consideration at the next meeting.  We asked what action will be taken by the Local Government Board through its auditor and replies to these queries have now been given in the most emphatic and practical manner possible.  Twelve members of the County Council, namely Messrs.  J.  McMahon, O. Hannah, F. Leonard, O. McBarron, Jas. Tierney, J.P.; James McCorry, F. Meehan, J.  Maguire, Jas.  O’Donnell, J.P., John McHugh, J.P. Gillen, and John Crosier, J.P. have been surcharged in the additional sum of £180 in respect of four roads which they voted at the meeting in question.

Fermanagh Times October 14th 1915.  PROGRESS OF THE I. A.S.O.  The I. A.S.O started from nothing.  It began to preach its gospel of organisation and self-help to the community to which these ideas were utterly new and strange.  Today it embraces more than 1,000 co-operative societies, with a membership of 106,000 farmers.  The turnover of the movement was £3,333,189 in 1913; last year it was £3,732,818.  Despite results which have attracted the attention and imitation of half the world, the cooperative movement has not yet come into its own in Ireland.  Our readers know the whole wretched story of official jealousy and hostility.

Impartial Reporter.  October 14th 1915.  A FOOTBALL CHARGE.  THE DRAMATIC INCIDENT.  Regarding the advance in France the Rev. C.  L.  Perry says that one officer had a football with the names of his platoon written on it.  Getting on the top of a parapet he kicked off crying ‘follow-up lads,’ and was almost immediately shot down.  The lads followed up, nevertheless.  ‘The fire from the machine guns,’ he adds, ‘was terrible and our men went down like corn before the scythe.’ For 48 hours all who could render first aid had their hands full.  What stories of heroism that will never be written.  An officer with three wounds knelt to bind the wounds of a man next to him, and was shot dead in the act.  Two wounded men stayed out 50 hours by the side of their sergeant, because they would not let him die alone.

Impartial Reporter.  October 14th 1915.  PETTIGO.  At a recent service in Pettigo Church, the Bishop of Clogher preached to a large congregation.  He took the opportunity of presenting to Matilda Taggart the silver medal (Bishop’s) for the highest place in the Diocesan examination in religious knowledge.

Impartial Reporter.  October 14th 1915.  FERMANAGH COUNTY COUNCILLORS SURCHARGES IN THE SUM OF £180.  The auditor, Major Eccles met the Nationalist members of the Fermanagh County Council to hear any explanation they might make as to four roads which he had refused to pass in the audit.  The members of the council affected by surcharges are – the chairman Mr. McHugh, J. P., Messrs J.  Tierney, J.  McGuire, J. Crozier, Felix Leonard, J.  P., J. P. Gillen, F. Meehan, J. McMahon, O. Hanna, J. Coulson.  Unionist members are not affected.

Fermanagh Herald October 16th. 1915.  THE MOTHER AND FOUR CHILDREN ARE BURNED TO DEATH IN A COUNTY DOWN TRAGEDY AS A LAMP EXPLODES IN THE BEDROOM.  The shocking tragedy occurred at Barnmeen about 7 miles from Newry on Sunday evening when the wife of a large farmer named Samuel J.  McKee and four children were burned to death and the extensive farmhouse in which they lived entirely gutted.  On Sunday evening Mr. McKee left to attend an evening service at the Brethren Hall, at Ballygorrian at 5.30 o’clock.  His wife Agnes, 36 and his sons William Murray McKee, four years, George McKee, 2 ½ years, and Louisa and Eliza Jane, twin children, age 16 months died.  The remains of the wife, unrecognisable from the effects of the fire, and two of the children were got out about 10.00 and later the other two.

Fermanagh Herald October 16th. 1915.  Seconded- Lieutenant John Irvine (gassed) is the son of Major J. G. C. Irvine, D. L., Killadeas, County Fermanagh.  He obtained his commission in the 4th Inniskillings on August 15, 1914, and has been temporarily attached at the front to the 2nd Battalion Royal Munster Fusiliers.  He is now in hospital at Oxford, where he is progressing satisfactorily.

Lieutenant-Commander Gartside Tipping, Royal Navy, whose death in action was recently reported, was a son of the late Captain Gartside Tipping, of Rossferry, near Derrylin.  He was a brother of Mrs. Richardson, of Rossfad.  When the present King, then Prince George, was undergoing an early course of naval instruction, deceased was lieutenant on the Royal yacht.

Fermanagh Herald October 16th. 1915.  THE DEATH HAS OCCURRED OF MR. JOHN MALLON, J.P., MEIGH, NEAR NEWRY EX-ASSISTANT COMMISSIONER OF THE DUBLIN METROPOLITAN POLICE who expired suddenly on Saturday after attending 8.00 Mass.  Mr. Mallon was for 50 years connected with the Dublin Metropolitan Police and was greatly involved at the time of the Phoenix Park assassinations.  His share in the investigation which led to the arrest and conviction of the men concerned is well known.  Mr. Mallon had the doubtful honour of arresting several Irish patriots, including James Stephens, Charles J Kickham, O’Donovan Rossa, John O’Leary, Parnell, and Davitt.  Some years ago in collaboration with a well-known London journalist, Mr. Mallon essayed to publish a story of his career as a policeman.  Some instalments of the story, which were decidedly unpromising and largely incorrect, were published in the columns of a Sunday newspaper.  The project was dropped, and some futile actions at law between the collaborators were the only outcome of the scheme.

Fermanagh Herald October 16th. 1915.  AT TYRONE OFFICER IS KILLED, CAPTAIN A.M. READ.  Captain Anketell Moutray Read, Northamptonshire regiment, 1st Battalion, killed in action, was well known as an army athlete.  He won the heavyweight championship in India 8 times, and the middleweight twice, winning both in the same meeting.  Three times he won the army and navy heavyweight championship at Aldershot and Portsmouth making an unequal record in service boxing.

Fermanagh Times October 21st 1915.  NARROW ESCAPE OF LISBELLAW  MAN.  Mister P. Mulligan, Dromore, County Tyrone, has received an interesting souvenir from the front.  His brother, Private John Mulligan, first Canadian Contingent, 7th Battalion, has sent him a German bullet, which lodged in his cartridge case without inflicting a wound.  In a letter received a few days ago he mentioned that out of his platoon of 150 men only two came unscathed from Bill 60, but they have been reinforced since then.  He was also in the fierce fighting at Hill 90 and around Ypres, but never got a wound.  He has been offered a commission, but refused it as he considers it is sufficient honour to have a chance of fighting for his country.  He is a native of Lisbellaw, where his father resides.

Fermanagh Times October 21st 1915.  A ROMAN CATHOLIC CHAPLAINS STORY.  BOTH IRISH MEN.  In a letter to his brother, at Navan, the Rev.  E.  J.  Cullen, Roman Catholic Chaplin with the 45th Field Artillery in Flanders writes under the date of September 30th: – “Of course, it was a great victory, but a very bloody one.  The Germans were simply massacred, and whole companies gave themselves up.  What between the gas, bombs, bayonets, rifle fire, machine-guns, and highly explosive shells – poor human nature had no chance, and fragments unrecognisable as belonging to human beings were the result.  The battle commenced with four days of bombardment, and a day and a night of intensive bombardment.  During this – a gun about 20 or 30 yards long, firing at  points 4 to 6 miles away – I went along the artillery, hearing the men’s confessions and giving Holy Communion.  I rode up at midnight to our battery, with a Captain Kenny, London but his parents Irish.  When I got up the colonel had just been killed by a shell – Butcher, related to Bishop Butcher, formerly at Ardbracken, Navan.  The major, two captains, and 16 men were Catholics, so I heard their confessions in a little hole, and it was most touching to see the major (the son of Lord Bellham), his two captains and all the catholic gunners kneeling on the ground behind their guns and receiving Holy Communion, and then making their thanksgiving aloud with me, at twelve o’clock at night. Of course, these expeditions were most perilous; but, what is the priest for save for such things as this?  When I tell you that shells were flying about you know why I always ask for prayers.

Next morning I went to another battery, and the major therein – Hannah, a relative of Hannah, K. C. an Irishman Protestant – told me that we priests were always after men.  When I had finished the Catholics there, he brought me to his big gun and said, as we are both Irishmen we may as well celebrates our meeting by having a crack at the Huns.  So he fired two rounds in my honour.  You see I have had some rare experiences.”

Fermanagh Times October 21st 1915.  GERMAN BARBARITY.  ENGLISH LADY EXECUTED IN BRUSSELS.  SHOT FOR SHELTERING  ALLIES SOLDIERS.  The foreign office is informed by the United States Ambassador that Miss Edith Cavell, lately head of a large training school for nurses in Brussels, who was arrested on the fifth of August last by the German authorities at that place, was executed on the 13th Inst. after sentence of death had been passed on her.  It is understood that the charge against the Miss Cavell was that she had harboured fugitive British and French soldiers and Belgians of military age, and had assisted them to escape from Belgium in order to join the colours.  So far as the Foreign Office are aware no charge of espionage was brought against her.

Fermanagh Times October 21st 1915.  FRENCH FIRE. Describing the unprecedented  strength of the French artillery fire during the three days fire in the recent great offensive, the Tägliche Rundschau now says: – “On one position of the front in Champagne the fire was so intense that one shot fell every second on every 20 metres ( 21½ yards), this portion of the front receiving during the three days of consistent firing over 50,000,000 shots.

Fermanagh Times October 21st 1915. BRITISH GAS. The public have noted with satisfaction Sir John French is intimation that at last our troops at the front her making reprisals on the enemy in the matter of the employment of paralysing gas.  It was never intended, however, to resort to the diabolical he torturing and poisonous vapours used by the Germans, and it is interesting to note that the enemy reports describes are a gas merely as intoxicating

Fermanagh Times October 21st 1915. RUSSIA’S “ONLY SONS” CALLED OUT.  Just before I left Russia (Mr. Stephen Graham) writes in The Times the “only sons” were called out, and with them militiamen up to 57 years of age.  Enormous numbers of young men who never expected to serve in the Army, whose parents had trusted in that immunity, are now being trained, and will shortly be advancing to the fighting line.  The act of calling them out synchronised with the Tsar’s taking the command, and it was in a way a further example of Russia’s wholeheartedness and her determination to cast everything on the altar of the nation.

Impartial Reporter.  October 21st 1915.  RELIGIOUS SERVICE BEHIND THEIR GUNS.  Rev E.  J.  Cullen, Catholic Chaplin serving with the 45th  F.  A., British Expeditionary Force, France writes about Hill 70: – The battle of Hill 70 will never be forgotten by me as long as I live.  The sights of horror are simply beyond description.  Imagine a short road so strewn with dead and dying those able to do so were kept very busy lifting the dead into a ditch to allow our guns, ambulance, etc. to pass and this among agonising groans all around and you have some notion of many such scenes.  The evening before the battle I went round hearing confessions and giving Holy Communion on the field or in the remains of houses along the line, and it was very sad to see these poor fellows laid out so soon but sadder still to see practically all young officers, and some of the Commanding Officers whom I knew so well –but for whom I could do nothing spiritually (all Presbyterians) brought in either dead or horribly mutilated.  I expected horrors and had already seen cases of shocking mutilations but I never dreamt of anything like this.  I had the consolation of attending about 19 Germans, and felt so pleased to be able to hear their confessions in their language, has they did not speak a word of French or English.  This murdering business went on in awful weather – rain and black mud and every other inconvenience that can be thought of.  Of course, it was a great victory, but a very bloody one.  The Germans were simply massacred and whole companies gave themselves up.  What between gas, bombs, bayonets, rifle fire, machine guns, and high explosive shells poor human nature had no chance and fragments unrecognisable as belonging to human beings were the result.

The battle commenced with a four day bombardment, and a day and a night of intensive bombardment.  During this a gun about 20 or 30 yards along was firing at points 4 to 6 miles away when I went along the artillery hearing the men’s confessions and giving Holy Communion.  I rode up at midnight to a battery with a Captain Kenny – London, was parents Irish.  When I got up the colonel had just been killed by a shell –Butcher, related to Bishop Butcher, formerly at Ardbracken, Navan.  The major, two captains and 16 men where Catholics so I heard all their confessions in a little hole there and it was most touching to see the major, the son of Lord Belham, his two captains and all the Catholic gunners kneeling on the ground behind their guns and receiving Holy Communion and then making their thanksgiving aloud with me at twelve o’clock at night.

Of course, these expeditions were most perilous; but what is a priest for save such as this?  When I tell you that shells were flying about you know why I always ask your prayers.  Next morning I went to another battery and the Major therein –Hannah, a relative of Hannah, K.  C., and Irishmen Protestant –told me that we priests were always after men.  When I had finished the Catholics there, he brought me to his big guns and said, ‘as we are both Irishmen we may as well celebrates our meeting by having a crack at the Huns.’  So he fired two rounds in my honour.  You see, I have had some rare experiences.

All are very hopeful of events now, as the ammunition seems to be quite sufficient, and a wonderful spirit pervade all ranks. The French are doing marvels.  Their prisoners amount up to 21,000.  We took about 3,000.  It was a wonderful spectacle!  Procession after procession of Germans marched by free.  Their officers seem to feel it, but the men were delighted they were taken, and gave themselves up in hundreds.  I am in the greatest form and most gratified for your prayers.  Get all the prayers around you for me and my work.  It is owing to someone’s prayer is that I escaped a shell in the trenches.  I slept on the floor last night in a wee store room small and smelly.  But this is nothing.  If you saw what the poor soldiers suffer – and officers, even colonels endure you would be shamed into enduring anything. Rev E.  J.  Cullen, Catholic Chaplin serving with the 45th F.  A., British Expeditionary Force.

Impartial Reporter.  October 21st 1915.  LONDON IN WAR TIME.  In my Palace Hotel, it is women who assist the Chief Waiters; it is women who serve in restaurants; it is girls in uniform who act is pages or attend to the lifts; you see women in police uniform; and when you alight from your train your ticket is checked by women.  Woman only attend you in the  Post Offices, and other public offices; women even drive motor wagons, though this work is too great a strain upon the feminine constitution; and women are everywhere, because of the drain of the men caused by the war.  Even at the Harvest Thanksgiving Service in Enniskillen last week the great preponderance of women over men was noticeable.  Every male who was a man, every youth of pluck and not a shirker has joined the navy and army; and only the elderly and married, with responsibility (not the married with no family) are supposed to be at home, along with the weaklings and wastrels and unpatriotic shirkers and loafers. W.C.T.

Impartial Reporter.  October 21st 1915.  London at night is the strangest a thing of all, for it is in London in darkness.  Long since precautions have been taken against wrong lights in the streets, but within a the last few weeks new regulations have been put in force under which with reduced and shrouded lights darkness has become largely invisible.  Gas lights, electric light, street lamps, tram lights are all surrounded either by Or dark paint so that light is thrown downwards and not defused. W.C.T.

Impartial Reporter.  October 21st 1915.  VARIOUS.  A League of Marriage is suggested, so that wounded soldiers from the front may marry respectable girls at home, and maintain the population.

Women from Hell is the term used by the Germans had to describe Highlanders when charging them.  We want more of those ‘women from hell.’

Great Britain declared war against Bulgaria from 10.00 PM on October 15, as Bulgaria had announced that she was at war with Servia.

Fermanagh Herald October 23rd. 1915.  A PRIEST’S GALLANT ACTION AT THE FRONT.  A gallant action by a Catholic chaplain is recorded by a correspondent of the Central News now at the British front.  It is the story of a bombing party of eight that went out in the night and never returned.  When morning came the regiment pictured their comrades lying wounded and dying in the mud and the slush and the decaying corn.  If they could only know for certain what had happened it would be relief of a sort.  But how to know?  It was broad daylight, the German snipers where in position; even to put one’s head over the parapet meant certain death.  While they were still discussing what appeared to be a hopeless situation a Catholic chaplain attach to the regiment came up to the firing line and asked to be allowed to go out in front and try to find the bodies.

After some hesitation his request was granted.  Wearing his surplus and with a crucifix in his hand the priest advanced down one of the saps and climbed out into the open.  With their eyes fixed to the periscope the British watched him anxiously as he proceeded slowly to the German lines.  Not a shot was fired by the enemy.  After a while the chaplain was seen to stop and bend down at the German wire entanglements.  He knelt in prayer.  Then with the same calm step, he returned to his own lines.  He had four identity discs in his hand, and reported that the Germans had held up four khaki caps on their rifles, indicating that the other four were prisoners in their hands.

Fermanagh Times October 28th 1915.  CHEQUE FOR BELTURBET’S V.C.  At Cloughjordan on Tuesday Sergeant Somers, V. C., was presented by Major–General Friend with a cheque for £240 which had been subscribed by the people of the district in recognition of the sergeant’s gallant conduct.

Fermanagh Times October 28th 1915.  RUDYARD KIPLING’S SON KILLED.  We have the heavy burden of announcing says the Morning Post, that Mr. John Kipling, of the Irish Guards, is reported “missing believed killed.”  John Kipling was the child for whom his father wrote the Just So Stories.  Mr. John Kipling was barely 18, a boy of delicate health, but indomitable zeal and resolution.  He had been nominated for the Irish Guards by Lord Roberts, and was determined to take his share in the war.  The sympathy of the whole Empire will go out to Mr. and Mrs. Rudyard Kipling in their sorrow.

Fermanagh Times October 28th 1915.  A HUGE SUM OF MONEY FOR A HAUL OF FISH.  The Don Company’s trawler Beaconmoor, of Aberdeen which had been operating in Iceland waters, landed a 40 ton catch at Aberdeen fish market on Monday morning.  Prices were high and the catch realised £1,220.

Fermanagh Times October 28th 1915.  The murder of Miss Edith Cavell is unparalleled.  And even worse than the crime is the cold blooded way in which it has been defended by the German Press.  It has staggered civilised humanity more possibly than any incident of the war, except perhaps the Lusitania; and in many respects it was more cold blooded and barbarous.  Its heartlessness and soullessness have roused the most bitter indignation.  But it has also aroused the recruiting spirit of the nation, and added to the stimulus which the movement was receiving.

Baron Von Bissing, who, it was reported, had followed up the ”ineffective volley” of the shooting party by blowing out Miss Cavell’s brains with a revolver bullet, now denies the assertion.  We are inclined to credit the denial for the act would have been so fiendish in its personal callousness that for the sake of humanity we hope it is untrue.  The King and Queen once more manifested their kindly and thoughtful nature by forwarding a sympathetic letter to the mother of the unfortunate victim expressing horror at the appalling deed.  By the way Miss Cavell visited Enniskillen a few years ago staying with Mrs. McDonnell, wife of the headmaster of Portora.

(Ed. Edith Louisa Cavell; 4 December 1865 – 12 October 1915) was a British nurse. She is celebrated for saving the lives of soldiers from both sides without distinction and in helping some 200 Allied soldiers escape from German-occupied Belgium during World War I, for which she was arrested. She was subsequently court-martialled, found guilty of treason and sentenced to death. Despite international pressure for mercy, she was shot by a German firing squad. Her execution received worldwide condemnation and extensive press coverage. She is well known for her statement that “patriotism is not enough”. Her strong Anglican beliefs propelled her to help all those who needed it, both German and Allied soldiers. She was quoted as saying, “I can’t stop while there are lives to be saved.” 12 October is appointed for her commemoration in the Anglican church, although this is not a “saint’s feast day” in the traditional sense. Edith Cavell, who was 49 at the time of her execution, was already notable as a pioneer of modern nursing in Belgium.)

Fermanagh Times October 28th 1915.  THE TRAGIC DEATH OF LADY EDITH CORRY.  A SAD ACCIDENT AT CASTLE COOLE.  DROWNED IN THE DEMESNE.  We voice today a unanimous expression of very deep and sincere sympathy with the Earl of Belmore, the Countess of Belmore, and family, in the loss they have sustained by the death of Lady Edith Corry, who was accidentally drowned on Monday last in Lough Yoan, a sheet of water in the beautiful demesne of Castle Coole.  The deceased lady, who was the sixth sister of the Earl of Belmore and was born in 1878, was out and about the grounds in her usual excellent health and spirits on Monday morning. When she did not arrive at the Castle for lunch her two sisters, Lady Winifred and Lady Violet, went out to look for her.  They searched in vain the immediate vicinity, and then naturally turned towards Lough Yoan for Lady Edith and her sisters made almost daily visits to that picturesque spot where the boathouse is situated.

Lady Violet was the first by a few minutes to arrive there and after a casual look around was shocked to find the body of her sister lying in but two feet of water in a channel at the lake.  She called to the Lady Winifred and at once removed the body to the bank where it was when Lady Winifred came up.  It was then only too apparent that Lady Edith was dead.  She was bleeding from the nose, which was swollen and discoloured showing that her face and had come forcibly in contact with some hard substance, evidently a large stone of which there are many in the channel.  The one and only solution of the painful tragedy is that the deceased lady stumbled on the bank, which is broken and unstable and covered with long grass, fell headlong into the water and was stunned, and thus unable to help herself.  Dr. Kidd was immediately summoned, but could only pronounced life extinct.  The greatest sympathy is everywhere expressed with the noble family in their sad bereavement.

Fermanagh Times October 28th 1915.  YOUNG IRISH EMIGRANTS ARE FLYING THE COUNTRY.  The Liverpool correspondent of the Weekly Dispatch telegraphs on Saturday: – Large numbers of men of military age are embarking at Liverpool for the United States for the obvious purpose of evading military duty to their country.  These “runaways” as they have been dubbed, are, it is only fair to others to state, mainly Irishmen.  They have been coming over to Liverpool in large batches and booking their passage here to the United States.  One agent has established a substantial revenue from these bookings.  The emigrants are Irish labourers, illiterate, but fine manly fellows, who would be the envy of any recruiting sergeant.  “It is a scandal that these men should be allowed to leave the country”, remarked an official whose business is to is to meet outward bound boats.  “They are leaving to escape being soldiers.  I have questioned them as to why they are leaving, and all they say is that they are going to meet some uncle or aunt in the the States.  It is a poor excuse, for it is plain that they don’t want to fight.  I suggest that the British government make a law to prevent every single man of military age from leaving the country.”  The Irish emigrants to the United States usually leave in the American liners in the steerage, with little luggage and they seem glad to go.

Fermanagh Times October 28th 1915.  THE DEATH OF A GREAT CRICKETER.  Although we are steeled in these days to sad news, there was a special pang in many elderly hearts when the announcement came that Dr. W. G. Grace had been stricken down.  No man, perhaps, ever give more innocent pleasure to a larger number of people, and over a longer period of time.  It was in 1864, when he was only 16 years of age, that he jumped into notice by making scorers of 170 and 56 not out for the South Wales Club against the Gentlemen of Sussex.  In the following year he made his first appearance for the Gentleman verses the Players and from that time onward he was the leading figure in the cricket world for close on 40 years.  As “W. G.”, he was famous all over the English speaking world, and we can quite believe the story that his name and fame were familiar to many people in remote parts of England who had never heard of Mr. Gladstone or even of Queen Victoria.

Fermanagh Times October 28th 1915. LADY POSTMEN. The letters in Derrygonnelly district are being delivered by young ladies.  There are four of them, and they’re working, says our correspondent, “to perfection.”

Fermanagh Times October 28th 1915.  THE DARDANELLES UNDERTAKING OUR LOSS OF LIFE AND THE RESPONSIBILITY.  We now know from Mr. Asquith’s lips that the unhappy Dardanelles expedition, which has cost 100,000 casualties and 78,000 invalids, was decided upon by the Cabinet against the opinion of the Government’s expert naval adviser, Lord Fisher.  Mr. Asquith accepts full responsibility for this and exculpates Mr. Churchill, who has generally been blamed for the ill-considered enterprise.  For some 20 lawyers and civilians says the Daily Mail to engage in a military operation of the utmost magnitude against the advice of the expert is nothing short of criminal.

Fermanagh Times October 28th 1915.  Miss Rice, Darling Street, Enniskillen, has received the following interesting letter from Captain and Dr. A. Geden Wilkinson, Gallipoli peninsula.

Dear Miss Rice, You’re very kind gift of “Woodbines” for the 1st Battalion Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers arrived today.  As you marked them “For the Wounded” they were given to me, the Medical Officer, to distribute.  I want to thank you very much indeed, especially as “Tommy” loves the Woodbine above all others, and also because when I have had cigarettes to give to men brought down to my dressing station, wounded, it seems to help them to bear the pain wonderfully.  We bind them up, put a “cig” in between their lips and they go away smiling in spite of all their nasty knocks.  I have been regimental medical officer since the Battalion came home from India to Rugby in England, and I may say you’ll be proud to know that our boys by the finest in the British Army.  Irish friends have been very good to us, and among them I would thank you on behalf of those who shortly may not be able to do so themselves.

Impartial Reporter.  October 28th 1915.  NURSE CAVELL EXECUTED.  GERMAN DECEIT AND TREACHERY.  Nurse Edith Cavell was condemned and shot by the Germans in Brussels for aiding English and Belgians to escape from Prussian cruelty.  She had lived in Brussels for nine years.  A trained English nurse she went there and found a nurse’s training home.  She and her pupils were known in Germany.  She was esteemed as an angel of mercy.  She admitted helping her fellow countrymen to cross the frontier and was arrested and calmly told what she had done.  But for her own words there was no evidence to convict her.  She was kept in the cell and had no opportunity of defence.  She said she was happy to die for her country a few hours before her death.  Throughout an ordeal that has no parallel during centuries of civilisation an insuperable spirit had sustained her until the rifles were levelled.  Then she swooned and fell and as she lay a German officers stepped near her and shot her with his pistol.  Only a German officer could do it.

Impartial Reporter.  October 28th 1915.  TRAGIC FATALITY AS LADY EDITH CORRY IS DROWNED AT CASTLE COOLE IN TWO FEET OF WATER.  This distressing fatality occurred on Monday afternoon last Lady Edith being sister of the Earl of Belmore, D.  L., and sixth daughter of the late Earl and the Countess of Belmore.  The deceased was aged 37 years and widespread sympathy goes out to the Countess of Belmore and her family in their bereavement.

Impartial Reporter.  October 28th 1915.  THE KING VISITS HIS ARMY IN THE FIELD.  The King is in France where he is gone to visit his army.  Accompanied by destroyers and aircraft on a gorgeous October midday he landed and was met by Sir John French.  With that sense of imperial affairs of which he is a student, the King elected to visit an English, a Canadian, an Australian and an Indian Hospital in the neighbourhood of the base after he had first investigated the more directly military departments.

Impartial Reporter.  October 28th 1915.  A STITCHED HEART.  One of the most remarkable operations in the annals of surgery has recently been performed on Pipe–Major G.  D.  Taylor of the King’s Own Scottish Borderers.  At Loos he was shot through the heart, but, marvellous to relate was not killed.  He was taken to the base hospital, where an incision was made in the chest and the laceration of the heart was stitched.  Pipe-Major Taylor is not only still alive, but the surgeons express every hope that he will pull through.

Herald October 30th. 1915.  THE EXECUTION OF NURSE CAVELL.  The official story of the execution of Miss Edith Cavell, an English nurse in Brussels, who was shot by the German authorities for assisting British and Belgian soldiers across the frontier, is contained in the correspondence forwarded by the American Legation in Brussels, and issued by the Press Bureau.

The letters reveal that the American Legation made a great but ineffectual fight to save her life.  The German authorities in spite of a promise to give the information, secretly and cunningly endeavour to hide from the Legation officials that sentence of death had been passed on Mr. Cavell.  Miss Cavell was shot at 2.00 a.m.  Sir Edward Grey says: – the news of the execution of this noble Englishwoman will be received with horror and disgust, not only in the Allied States, but throughout the civilised world.  Miss Cavell was not even charged with espionage, and the fact that she had nursed numbers of wounded German soldiers might have been regarded as a complete reason in itself for treating her with leniency.

A New York Telegram dated Saturday says: – the newspapers published long editorial articles upon Miss Cavell’s death roundly castigating Germany for cold blooded inhumanity towards a defenceless woman.  Germany has brought herself into a position where the world turns from her in horror and dread.  The “Press” says the iron hand of soulless Germany has struck another blow that kindles anew the bitter indignation of humanity. Nothing among all her cruel and inhuman acts except the sinking of the Lusitania, has so blackened her and so shocked the world as the hard, soulless, murder of this defenceless sweet-souled woman.

Fermanagh Herald October 30th. 1915.  CLONES INFANTICIDE CHARGE.  For the fourth time Martha Jane Johnston, a girl under 16 years; Mrs. Isabella Johnston her mother; and Isabella Johnston, junior., were brought up in custody on remand at Newtownbutler before Captain Gosselin, RM., charged with the murder of an infant female child of the first named accused about the end of July or beginning of August last.  The police have been scouring the district for over two months for the body of this child which they allege has been the victim of foul play, but up to the present without success.

Fermanagh Herald October 30th. 1915.  CLONES GUARDIANS AND MARGARINE.  The question of substituting margarine for butter was discussed.  Approval has been given by the local Government Board to the use of margarine in such institutions provided that affective steps are taken to ensure that uniformly good quality was supplied.  It was agreed that tenders for margarine be invited, in view of the high price of butter, the officers to be asked to accept the substitute also.  With reference to the application of Dr. D’Arcy, medical officer of Roslea dispensary district, for a year’s leave of absence for the purpose of joining the R.A.M.C. and the Local Government Board’s letter requesting the Guardians to reconsider their decision refusing this unless the doctor provided a qualified substitute who would reside in the dispensary district.  Mr. McCaldin handed in notice of motion that the matter be considered at the next meeting.

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Poison Gas and Poor Finnegan of Enniskillen and the Inniskillings.

Poison Gas, The Inniskillings and Poor Finnegan in World War I

by John B. Cunningham

The headline in the Fermanagh Herald of May 13th read INNISKILLINGS GASSED. ULSTER JOURNALIST’S DEATH. SERGEANT P.P. FINNEGAN.  Finnegan was well known in Enniskillen and a popular journalist as testified below by his colleagues. The following is a copy of a letter from Lieutenant E. Gallagher, 7th Inniskillings to his brother Mr Henry T. Gallagher, Crown Solicitor, Strabane.

Gas

John Singer Sargent was commissioned as a war artist in 1918.

30-4-16

Dear Harry, – Just on my way somewhere; we are in a hospital train, and it’s like our own officers mess, so many of the old hands are here, gassed.  As for the Irish, they easily carried the day, men and officers.  I was gassed in the second attack (gas) after having a good half hour bowling over Bosches and looking forward to another good time.  My platoon sergeant, poor Finnegan – was with me and he did buck us up; he kept shouting on the Bosches ‘Come on Fritz; we have some lovely presents for you,’ and they got them.  Then when the Bosche saw he had failed he sent us more gas and it was terrible seeing poor fellows dropping on all sides.  Then I felt my own time coming; words could not describe it.  I had my helmet on, but it must have had some defect.  However, I began to feel the gas: first it made me gasp; and then it turned me blue; my chest weighed a ton and my head was ready to crack and I coughed until I thought I would cough my insides up.  I thought I would try and find the dressing station.  On my way I came across poor Finnegan and he was as bad; we got on about 100 yards when we both collapsed.  We just clung to one another and Finnegan said ‘Sir, we have no chance.’  I agreed as I was exhausted.  Finnegan shouted out: ‘By God, Sir isn’t it terrible to die like this! If we had only got a sporting chance; but no one could beat this.’  After half lying, half standing, clinging to one another for about 10 minutes and going through terrible agony, I said to Finnegan, come on let us make one last effort, and we did.  I helped poor Finnegan along.  At last he said, ‘Go on sir, I am done.’  However we plodded along creeping and walking in a trench with two feet of mud.  I found myself at the dressing station about done up. I sent out a party for Finnegan, but he could not be found.  He was found that night dead.  A plucky soldier – he had no fear.

Our boys did well.  Harry, if you could have seen them it would have delighted you.  There was no pause, every man went at it, and after the first attack they actually fought as to which company had the best ‘bag’ outside their parapet and to hear them bragging ‘that fellows helmet beside your big shell hole is on our side of the wire.  It was glorious and I was just thinking how pleased the people at home will be when this will be told in full.  Then in a day’s time I got a paper and what do I see?  This terrible rebel rising in Ireland.  Poor old Ireland!  Betrayed again!  I am getting along as well as can be expected.  It takes time to get the gas out of one’s system.  However a few weeks will make me fairly up to the knocker. Best love to all in Dunwiley. Harry. May be home sooner than I expected.  I.R.

gas1Poison gas was probably the most feared of all weapons in World War One. It was indiscriminate and could be used on the trenches even when no attack was going on. Whereas the machine gun killed more soldiers overall during the war, a death that was frequently instant or not drawn out and soldiers could find some shelter in bomb/shell craters from gunfire, a poison gas attack meant soldiers having to put on crude gas masks and if these were unsuccessful, an attack could leave a victim in agony for days and weeks before he finally succumbed to his injuries. It is generally assumed that gas was first used by the Germans in World War One. This is not accurate. The first recorded gas attack was by the French. In August 1914, the French used tear gas grenades containing xylyl bromide on the Germans. This was more an irritant rather than a gas that would kill. It was used by the French to stop the seemingly unstoppable German army advancing throughout Belgium and north-eastern France. In one sense, it was an act of desperation as opposed to a premeditated act that all but went against the ‘rules’ of war. However, while the French were the first to use a gas against an enemy, the Germans had been giving a great deal of thought to the use of poison gas as a way of inflicting a major defeat on an enemy. In October 1914, the Germans attacked Neuve Chapelle. Here they fired gas shells at the French that contained a chemical that caused violent sneezing fits. Once again, the gas was not designed to kill but rather to incapacitate an enemy so that they were incapable of defending their positions.

This took place against a background of a war in the west that was still mobile. Once trench warfare had literally dug in all sides involved in the conflict looked for any way possible to bring movement back into their campaigns. One of the more obvious was to develop a weapon that was so appalling that it would destroy not only an enemy frontline but also the will to maintain troops on that frontline. Poison gas might even provoke a mass mutiny along a frontline thus causing it to collapse. In other words, poison gas was the answer for the war’s lack of mobility. Poison gas (chlorine) was used for the first time at the Second Battle of Ypres in April 1915. At around 17.00 hours on the 22nd April, French sentries in Ypres noticed a yellow-green cloud moving towards them – a gas delivered from pressurised cylinders dug into the German front line between Steenstraat and Langemarck. They thought that it was a smokescreen to disguise the forward movement of German troops. As such, all troops in the area were ordered to the firing line of their trench – right in the path of the chlorine. Its impact was immediate and devastating. The French and their Algerian comrades fled in terror. Their understandable reaction created an opportunity for the Germans to advance unhindered into the strategically important Ypres salient. But even the Germans were unprepared and surprised by the impact of the gas and they failed to follow up the success of the chlorine attack. What did occur at Ypres was a deliberate use of a poison gas and now, other nations with the ability to manufacture poison gas could use it and blame it on the Germans as they had been the first to use it in this fashion.

gas2

British soldiers – victims of a poison gas attack

The first nation to respond to the Ypres gas attack was Britain in September 1915. The newly formed Special Gas Companies attacked German lines at Loos. In the Ypres attack, the Germans had delivered their chlorine by using pressurised cylinders. For the attack at Loos, the British also used gas cylinders. When the wind was in a favourable direction, chlorine gas was released from the British front line so that it could drift over to the German front line. This was then to be followed by an infantry attack. However, along parts of the British front line, the wind changed direction and the chlorine was blown back onto the British causing over 2,000 casualties with seven fatalities. The Special Gas Companies were not allowed to call their new weapon gas – it was referred to as an “accessory”. However, the risk of the wind blowing gas back onto you also affected the Germans and French in some of their gas attacks during late 1915.

gas3 Two German soldiers and their mule.

The development in the use of poison gases led to both phosgene and mustard gas being used. Phosgene was especially potent as its impact was frequently felt only 48 hours after it had been inhaled and by then it had already bedded itself in the respiratory organs of the body and little could be done to eradicate it. Also it was much less apparent that someone had inhaled phosgene as it did not cause as much violent coughing. By the time that phosgene had got into a person’s bodily system, it was too late. Mustard gas was first used by the Germans against the Russians at Riga in September 1917. This gas caused both internal and external blisters on the victim within hours of being exposed to it. Such damage to the lungs and other internal organs were very painful and occasionally fatal. Many who did survive were blinded by the gas.

By the time the war ended, the main user of poison gas was Germany, followed by France and then Britain. Though poison gas was a terrifying weapon, its actual impact, rather like the tank, is open to debate. The number of fatalities was relatively few – even if the terror impact did not diminish for the duration of the war.

The British army (including the British Empire) had 188,000 gas casualties but only 8,100 fatalities amongst them. It is believed that the nation that suffered the most fatalities was Russia (over 50,000 men) while France had 8,000 fatalities. In total there were about 1,250,000 gas casualties in the war but only 91,000 fatalities (less than 10%) with over 50% of these fatalities being Russian. However, these figures do not take into account the number of men who died from poison gas related injuries years after the end of the war; nor do they take into account the number of men who survived but were so badly incapacitated by poison gas that they could hold down no job once they had been released by the army.

Armies quickly produced gas masks that gave protection as long as sufficient warning was given of a gas attack. Soldiers also used make-shift gas masks if they were caught in the open without a gas mask during a gas attack – cloth soaked in their own urine and placed over the mouth was said to give protection against a chlorine attack. By the end of the war, relatively sophisticated gas masks were available to soldiers in the trenches on the Western Front.

“Poison Gas and World War One”. HistoryLearningSite.co.uk. 2014. Web.

The Fermanagh Herald paid tribute to their former reporter as follows: – Sergeant Finnegan was, prior to joining the Inniskillings, a member of the reporting staff of the Fermanagh Herald and was well known all over the North West.  He was an able and reliable journalist and was held on the highest esteem by his colleagues and by everyone who came in contact with him in the discharge of his duties.  He was a prominent member of the National Volunteers and as Lieutenant Gallagher says was a plucky and fearless soldier.  He was the typical Celt, genial, kindly, and good natured, and a sparkling wit, his gifts as a raconteur and his mellow brogue gave him a warm reception in social circles.  He was a splendid Gaelic scholar, and was able to report the most fluent Gaelic speakers, an accomplishment which few Pressmen possess.  His remains now rest in France – far from Kilkenny and the banks of the silvery Nore where his childhood days were spent.  That his soul may rest in peace is the earnest prayer of his former colleagues.  We tender our sincere sympathy to his relatives in their bereavement.

June 1915.

Fermanagh Times June 3rd, 1915.  AN OPPORTUNITY FOR WOMEN.  There is one sphere which is particularly women’s province, and where their talents should find official recognition and employment.  Prodigious sums of money are being spent on food at the military camps throughout the kingdom, and it is said that the amount of food thrown away at these places every day exceeds even the limits of British thriftlessness.  We should like to see a committee of women formed under the auspices of the War Office, in the neighbourhood of every camp, and charged with the duty of ordering and preparing all the food eaten in it.  They would do it too far more economically and carefully than it is done at present, and the health and digestion of the troops will be all the better for it.  Daily Mail.

 

Fermanagh Times June 3rd, 1915.  LISNASKEA GUARDIANS.  FEVER HOSPITAL CROWDED.  THE CHAIRMAN AND RECRUITING.  Dr. Knox wrote and stating that the Fever Hospital was crowded with different forms of infectious diseases, so much so that the old kitchen had to be utilised for a diphtheria case.  How he asked in future will any emergency be met if the apartments for nurses were cut off the Boards?

The Chairman said his attention had been drawn that morning to a comment made by Mr. Trimble on what he said after the Board on that day fortnight.  He did not think Mr. Trimble had any right to make such a comment or to throw mud at him.  The mud, however, would not stick, but would only give him a gloss and show that he was a true Irishmen at heart.  He ( the Chairman) had said nothing to interfere with recruiting, but only that they wanted more men in Fermanagh to raise and mature their crops so that when the wings of Famine spread over the country as they surely would do, the it would be seen that the men who had laboured on the land and had gathered in the crop would be more honoured and more appreciated than those who had gone to bleed in Flanders.  They would be more appreciated by the Government and by the people, and by Mr. Trimble too, although everything Mr. Trimble did was against the Irish people.

 

Fermanagh Times June 3rd, 1915.  SUMMER TRIPS ON THE LAKE.  Notwithstanding the grim outlook of the war and the pathos of the general suffering it entails the Directors have thought it well to keep up this season also the running of the Lady of the Lake.  We must not, as a people, give way to gloom and depression.  That would ill-fit us for the desperate struggle in which we are involved.  To keep up the health is to sustain our physical vigour and a sound tone of thinking, and there is no pleasanter way of obtaining these much prized ends than by spending as many sunny days as possible in the open air sailing in and out amongst the lovely islands of Lough Erne.

The Lady of the Lake will, therefore, commence the service to Castle Caldwell, on Monday the 14th Inst…  We regret that the response of the public to the appeal made to them by the company was not too encouraging.  But probably now, when the Directors display so enterprising a spirit many of those who were disposed to hold back will change their views and send in a request for season tickets.  They are marvellously cheap.

 

Fermanagh Times June 3rd, 1915.  THE REAL CULPRITS.  The Daily Mail has been attributing a good deal of our lack of high explosives to Lord Kitchener.  Now we have a great deal of traditional admiration for that gentleman.  He is a great soldier.  As an organiser he is supposed to be unsurpassed.  We do not know whether he has taken upon himself more than he can fulfil or on what other shoulders blame should be located.  The plain, bald fact is that our men have suffered terribly and our position has been much weakened for want of a proper kind of shell for which Sir John French has been writing time and again.  Now the  Mail is a shrewd paper with ample resources of information, and if it is honestly satisfied that this dire and most calamitous shortage is the fault of Lord Kitchener it was its duty to speak out plainly and boldly.  This is no time for mealy-mouthedness.  Men and their reputations must not be considered for a moment, when the country is in danger.  We have been greatly impressed by the logic of the Mail, by the irresistible logic of all the circumstances of the situation.  In attacking Lord Kitchener the Mail knew it was assailing a popular hero, and that in these sentimental times a great deal of venom against itself would be evoked.  We do not see that it had anything to gain by adopting the course it did.  The motive and action would seem to us to be patriotic.

 

Fermanagh Times June 3rd, 1915.  DEATHS.  ELLIOTT – May 27th, at the residence of his son-in-law, Moses Maguire, Cashel, James Elliott, aged 77 years.

TYDD.  On the 24th of May, at the Rectory, Inver, Co., Donegal, Louisa Leslie Tydd, wife of the Rev. A. P. L. Tydd and eldest daughter of the Rev. W. Steel, D. D. late Headmaster of Portora Royal School.

 

Fermanagh Times June 3rd, 1915.  WANTED.  Henry Lyons & Company Ltd.  Sligo, require immediately several first class COAT MAKERS.  Society wages.  Healthy and well ventilated work rooms.  Good prospects for suitable men.

RAILWAYMEN – Steady Men wanted as Porters at Buchanan Street Goods Station, Glasgow.  Wages to start, including war bonus, 25 shillings per week.  Apply Mr. Cooper, Goods Superintendent.

WANTED an Apprentice (Protestant) to the Hardware and Grocery.  Good opening for smart youth.  Apply 3157, this office.

 

Fermanagh Times June 3rd, 1915.  LOCAL MILITARY NEWS.  The recruiting party of the 11th ( Service) Battalion Inniskilling Fusiliers under Lt.  William Knight, which has been in this district for the past fortnight concluded their tour on Saturday.  Altogether about 100 men were attested by Lt. Knight and so pleased were the authorities with the admirable work done by him and his men that they granted them five days’ leave.

Pettigo was the most responsive town visited for here Lieutenant Knight secure 24 men.  Lisbellaw came next with 15 men.  It may be mentioned that we understand that other recruiting parties visited Pettigo without success.

On Friday the party in visited the Ballyconnell.  They were most heartily entertained by a number of ladies to an excellent repast in the Courthouse.  Afterwards a meeting was conducted on the steps of the Courthouse and addresses were given by General Tennyson, Colonel Rowe, and Rev. Mr. Rogers.  Later a smoking concert was held in the Markethouse where music was supplied by the band and the local ladies.  Lieutenant Knight spoke here, but it must be regretted that a certain section of the audience was of anti-recruitment sentiments and kept up a continual interruption.  “Where are Carson’s men?”  shouted one individual.  The attitude of the interrupters was such that it is only a pity they could not be individually identified and punished.  Next morning the band played selections through the streets and the Bank Manager distributed cigarettes among the men.

Official intelligence has been received by the parents of Private James Maguire, son of Francis Maguire, Roslea Road, Clones, and Private John McCormack, son of Thomas McCormack, Analore Street, Clones, that they have been killed in action at the front.  News has also reached Clones, but as yet no official confirmation is to hand of the death in action of Private John McElroy, Clones.

Mrs. Lynch, Dame Street, Enniskillen, has been notified by the War Office that her son Private James Lynch, 4th Battalion Royal Irish Regiment was killed in action on the 11th of May.

Lieutenant Edward Crawford, 3rd Battalion Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers attached to the Royal Irish Regiment, died on the 27th of May from gas poisoning received in recent fighting in Belgium.  Lieutenant Crawford was a son of the late Mr. Robert Crawford, D. L., of Stonewold, Ballyshannon, and was educated at Portora Royal School and Cheltenham College.  He had been invalided home with frostbite before Christmas and had only recently returned to the front.

We observe the names of two members of the same Fermanagh family, the sons of Mr. Hugh Crooke, Glenwinny, Cosbystown.  One of them Sergeant William H. Crook, 1st Battalion Inniskilling Fusiliers was killed, while his brother Private Montgomery Crooke, was wounded both on the same day, the 8th of May, at the Dardanelles.  It appears that Sergeant Crooke was sent out on a “listening patrol” with a few of his section, and one of his men got hit; he went over to bandage him and in doing so got hit himself, both of them dying in a short time.  About two hours before this Private Crook had got shot through the shoulder while another bullet passed through his coat, but without touching his skin.  He is now in hospital and progressing favourably.  Sergeant Crooke had served through the South African War, while both brothers had been in India for about eight years.  The sad news of the death of one and the wounding of the other has caused deep regret throughout the Cosbystown district where their family is well known and much respected and sincere sympathy is being extended to them in their loss.

 

Fermanagh Times June 3rd, 1915.  MR. W.  R.  WHYTES’S BROTHER KILLED.  Much sympathy will be felt in Enniskillen and district with Mr. W. R. Whyte, J.P., manager of the local branch of the Scottish Co-Operative Wholesale Society, in the loss he has sustained by the death of his brother, who was killed in France on Sunday the 23rd of May. Quarter Master Sergeant Whyte was in the Argyle and Sutherland Highlanders, Infantry Brigade, 51st Division, and was transferred to France about a fortnight before he met his death.  The Germans it appears, shelled the billets behind the trenches and it was while in one of these that Quartermaster Sergeant Whyte was struck.  He died the same day.  He was only 32 years of age and unmarried.

 

Fermanagh Times June 3rd, 1915.  SERGEANT MICHAEL O’LEARY, V.  C.  READS AN ACCOUNT OF HIS OWN DEATH.  A report having been widely circulated that O’Leary, V. C. was killed, the Sergeant himself removed any doubt as to his condition.  In a letter, dated May 29th, he writes “I have seen by today’s paper is that I have been killed in action.  No, I am still in the firing line, doing my bit for my King and country.  I trust God is not going to call me so soon until I have done a bit more for my country.  I came out of the last battle with only a few scratches, thank God.”

 

Fermanagh Times June 3rd, 1915.  THE THINGS PEOPLE WANT TO KNOW.  Are the only really active branches of the Catch–My–Pal Society in Fermanagh those in Kesh, Newtownbutler and Brookeborough?  Will the Enniskillen branch ever be revived?  What practical work is being done by the Churches in this country in the cause of temperance?

What response has there been by the public to the appeal made by the Enniskillen YMCA for funds to provide a reading and recreation rooms for our soldiers?

Is it true that soldiers in Enniskillen are to be provided with a dummy hand which will be kept constantly at the salute, owing to the fact that they have to perform that ceremony every 10 yards they walk through our streets in the afternoons?

 

Fermanagh Times June 3rd, 1915.  FELL OUT OF THE TRAIN AN ACCIDENT ON THE G.N.R.  A woman named Boylan, the wife of a solicitor, who was on her way from Ballyshannon to Londonderry on Tuesday night, accidentally fell out of the Great Northern Railway train between Fintona and Omagh with a child in her arms, the accident being caused through the carriage door having been opened.  The communication cord was pulled by another passenger, and the train brought to a standstill.  The woman, who was found sitting on the railway bank, escaped without injury, but the child was slightly injured.

 

Fermanagh Times June 3rd, 1915.  BELTURBET CASUALTIES.  Already a number of soldiers from the Belturbet District have laid down their lives in the great cause, and almost every day adds to the alleged list of casualties.  Mr. Ebenezer Fraser, coach builder, Belturbet, has been notified of the death of his son, Private E.  Fraser, of the Royal Irish Fusiliers and Mrs. Shellin, Bridge Street, Belturbet, has received a letter from her son, Private J.  Shellin, 1st Lancashire Fusiliers, stating that he is been wounded during the operations in the Dardanelles.  He is cheerful despite his wounds, and hopes to have another crack at “the Lusitania murderers soon.”  Private Fraser, who was a fine strapping lad of 19, was only about a month in France when he met his death.

 

Fermanagh Times June 3rd, 1915.  THERE ARE EIGHT MILLION MEN OF MILITARY AGE.  The appeal issued by the War Office for 300,000 men includes an analysis of the census figures of men between the ages of 18 and 39.  There are altogether 6,513,938 in England and Wales.  Scotland has 803,434 men, and Ireland 735,707 making a total of 8,053,079 men of fighting age in the United Kingdom.  Two million men of all ages are stated to be engaged in the manufacture of war munitions.

Fermanagh Herald June 5th. 1915.  THE DUBLIN FUSILIERS AND THE GAS ATTACK. Mr. G.  A Valentine Williams, the Special Correspondent of the Daily Mail says: – Private Frank O’Brien of the Dublin Fusiliers, one of the men gassed, whom I found convalescent in the “gas ward” of this casualty clearing station this afternoon gave me a dramatic account of his experience.  “I had my respirator on,” he said “but the gas came full at me the way I could not see or breathe. I went all weak.  We couldn’t hold the trench at all.  We had to fall back.  I was staggering down the road just strangling.”

“There was one of our police there.  He stopped me.  “Get back to your trench, he says, or I’ll shoot you.”  I was that weak by this that I went down there in the dust at his feet.  When he saw I was bad he leant down to me and though fair strangling as I was I just begged him to shoot me.  But he says I see how it is with you.  You’re a brave lad and we’ll get you to the ambulance.

Private O’Brien was not the only man that had prayed that day that his life might be ended.  For 4½ hours the Germans poured out dense fumes of their deadly gas, which, fanned by a brisk north-easterly breeze spread over an area of 6 miles beyond Ypres.  “It would have brought the tears to your eyes,” the doctors say, “to see these splendid men, great brawny fellows – many of them tearing at their throats, rending their tunics, screaming to us in hoarse, rattling voices to put them out of their misery.”

 

Impartial Reporter.  June 3 1915.  GAS-POISON WAR.  A 40 FEET WALL OF VAPOUR.  A correspondent near Ypres says: – Within 20 yards of me a score of gas patients are lying struggling for breath in a ward, the last batch of the several hundreds of victims sent down on Monday as the result of the great German gas attack.  Of these 17 are dead; the rest have been sent to the base.  It was in the half light of dawn on Monday morning that the Germans delivered their attack.  The men on the watch at the parapet saw what they first took to be smoke of fires rising at frequent intervals all along the German lines.  Almost before the men could warn their comrades, many of whom were asleep, the fumes were upon them in an immense wall of vapour 40 feet high.

 

Fermanagh Herald June 5th. 1915.  CLIFF FATALITY AT THE CAUSEWAY.  AN ENGLISH VISITOR FALLS 250 FEET.  The victim was Mr Fred Blackshew, aged about 34 years belonging to George Street Coventry.  Accompanied by three companions, the deceased drove from Portrush to see the Causeway arriving there about 3.00.  Two of the men went in by the toll-gate but Blackshew and Bush, the fourth, decided to walk along the cliff head.  Shortly afterwards a local resident named James Martin, and his wife were returning home from gathering seaweed, and they were horrified to find Mr. Blackshew lying on the footpath at the bottom of the amphitheatre cliff, from the top of which he had fallen, a distance of about 250 feet.  The injured man was carried to Mr. Frank Kane’s hotel, but notwithstanding all that medical skill could do he never regained consciousness and passed away about 1.00 yesterday morning.

 

Fermanagh Herald June 5th. 1915.  FERMANAGH BRAVERY RECOGNIZED.  The Trustees of the Carnegie Hero Fund have awarded certificates and the sum of £5.00 to Mr. and Mrs. Cullen, Kesh, in recognition of their prompt and plucky action in saving from drowning last December William Snow and Thomas McCabe.  These two men were crossing to Bow Island in a boat with William Gibson.  The boat overturned and hearing cries for help Mr. and Mrs. Cullen, who are herds on Bow Island went in tempestuous weather to their assistance, Gibson being drowned.  The Cullens are in poor circumstances and have 12 children.

Fermanagh Herald June 5th. 1915.  WAR CASUALTIES. We regret to announce the death in action of Private Berty Emmet, Strand Street, Enniskillen.  Deceased was attached to the 2nd Battalion Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers and was stationed at Dover with his regiment when the war broke out.  Two of his brothers, Sergeant Emmet and Private  Emmett are at present serving in the Dardanelles.

Official intelligence has been received by the parents of Private James Maguire, son of Francis Maguire, Roslea Road, Clones, and Private John McCormack, son of Thomas McCormack, Analore Street, Clones, that they have been killed in action at the front.  News has also reached Clones, and as yet no official communication is to hand, of the death in action of Private John McElroy, Clones.

Fermanagh Herald June 5th. 1915.  WOUNDED ENNISKILLEN MEN.  Private Frank Fitzpatrick, Inniskilling Fusiliers, writing from St. Bartholomew’s Hospital, London, to his sister in Enniskillen, says “as for myself I could not be doing better, though I thought I would never see you again.  I will never forget it during my life.”  He then describes an engagement in which he took part, and says he was hit, in both feet and on the left hand, and got a slight wound on the side.  He lay on the ground the whole night, the bullets cutting his trousers and his pack “I had,” he adds, “my mind made up for death.  I tried to crawl but it was no good.  There was a poor fellow moaning beside me, and the bullets hit a box of matches in his pocket, and he went on fire, and I could do nothing for him.  It nearly broke my heart I thought I would have bled to death, but thank God and his Blessed Mother for it.  The priest gave me absolution that evening.  He started to cry, but he told us to fight for all we were worth, and so we did.  We get everything one could ask for in this hospital.”

 

Fermanagh Herald June 5th. 1915.  THE PASSING OF A GREAT GOVERNMENT.  After 9 ½ years of glorious crowded life, the great Liberal Government which came into office in December 1905, has ceased to be.  The end has not come the way Liberals we have wished.  It came stealthily, silently, ingloriously.  A blast of war’s mephitic breath killed in a night a government that had emerged scathless for many a furious storm.  But they can take pride in the reflection that the government which is just passed away has to its credit a noble record of accomplished work, and that it has left a deep and an enduring mark on the history of our time.

 

Fermanagh Times June 10th, 1915.  DESTROYING ZEPPELINS.  A DARING FEAT.  AIRMAN AWARDED THE V. C.  News was received this morning of two daring attacks by British naval aviators on enemy airships, which resulted in the destruction of a Zeppelin  and the setting on fire of an airship hangar.  For daring and skill the destruction of the Zeppelin which was accomplished by one naval airman alone and unassisted, can rarely, if ever, have been excelled in the annals of British flying.  When over the German lines between Bruges and Ghent early this morning the airman encountered a German Zeppelin.  Rising above it he reached a certain height, and then swooping down upon the aircraft launched a bomb which fell true to its aim, and pierced the envelope of the dirigible.  A loud explosion followed, and the Zeppelin fell crippled to the ground, a mass of smoke and flame.  The force of the explosion, however, with the consequent disturbance of the atmosphere, caught the aeroplane as it was passing (its mission accomplished) over the wrecked dirigible.  The machine was travelling at a very rapid pace, and as the result of the upward blast of air was forced to loop the loop.  During this manoeuvre petrol escape from the rear tank of the aeroplane, and it was compelled to come down within the German lines.  With extraordinary daring and quickness, however, he managed to refill the empty tank from reserve tins he had with him, and then resuming his seat in the craft he soared up again and returned safely and unhurt to the British lines.

(Ed. Reginald Alexander John WARNEFORD. “The KING has been graciously pleased to approve of the grant of the Victoria Cross to Flight Sub-Lieutenant Reginald Alexander John Warneford, Royal Naval Air Service, for the conspicuous act of bravery specified below: —

For most conspicuous bravery on the 7th June, 1915, when he attacked and, single-handed, completely destroyed a Zeppelin in mid-air. This brilliant achievement was accomplished after chasing the’ Zeppelin from the coast of Flanders to Ghent, where he succeeded in dropping his bombs on to it from a height of only one or two hundred feet. One of these bombs caused a terrific explosion which set the Zeppelin on fire from end to end, but at the there for the same time overturned his Aeroplane and stopped the engine. In spite of this he succeeded in landing safely in hostile country, and after 15 minutes started his engine and returned to his base without damage.” (London Gazette – 10 June 1915).

 

Fermanagh Times June 10th, 1915.  FROM THE FRONT TO CLONELLY.  SILENT SUE.  Mr. Harry Hart is a stepson of Mr. Folliott Barton, J. P., Clonelly.  A medical student in Australia he was a member of the University Scouts and came to this country in September last.  In April he went to London and joined King Edward’s Horse one of the first in Pettigo District to join the colours.  Within six days of joining he was sent to the front.  He has since been in France and seen a great deal of active service.  He writes frequently to his mother, Mrs. Barton, and judging by the tone of his letters he is full of the splendid Colonial spirit we have all learned nowadays to greatly value.  He is certainly not downhearted and the grit he exhibits is a grander and more patent element in the British trenches than the cement and steel with which the Germans fortify theirs.  Here is one of his latest communications from the front.

  1. E. H., A. S., About 3rd of June. My Dear Mother, we shifted again last night, but not into the trenches only to new billets on a new part of the line, where they say the trenches are much more comfortable. I have just been reading an account of the trenches by some academic bespectacled correspondent.  My advice to him, whoever he may be, is to come and have a look at one, then I guess he won’t feel like waxing poetic over the beauty of the night and the brilliance of the star shells.  The new billets are a trifle exciting, the German guns drop a few shells round here now and again, don’t know why they do it, we’re not doing anything to them.  Now, all we want is sleep and they try and stop us from getting it by kicking up as much row as they can.  I think I forgot to tell you of a friend we made while in the trenches; we called her “Silent Sue”, she is one of our big guns.  She has a tremendous range, but it was only when the wind was with her that we could hear her report though we could see the shell passing over our heads and burst in the German lines with a terrific bang.  It was awfully soothing to hear her quiet purr just after a Germans shell had burst close to you, and to know that she had a straight eye behind her.  Thank God she wasn’t shooting the opposite direction.  I am sending you home the five franc note I got as my first pay on active service, it will do as a curiosity to stick in the collection of notes.  It is a week’s pay worth 4s 2d, so you see the British Tommy depending on his pay out here is well paid.  I might scrape of a few other things for the museum for instance my valise is well marked with shrapnel holes.  Love to all, Harry.

 

Impartial Reporter.  June 10 1915.  A BREEZY LETTER. SIDELIGHTS ON THE CAMPAIGN.  The following breezy letter from the Dardanelles has been received by a gentleman in Dublin whose brother is a naval officer.  The Army is safely landed and are steadily battering its way to Constantinople.  By Jove if you had seen those Australians shining up the hills, (cliffs in places) with the bayonet alone, and ripping up the Turks, (those who stayed), it would have done your heart good. The enemy are most stubborn and are well led.  We have a few prisoners on board, and the officers among them are well dressed and hard looking.  The men are mostly scaly-wags and very badly fitted out.  Their foot gear is poor being, either rope-soled boots or Turkish slippers.  Their rifles are of the very latest German pattern, except in the case of Greeks and Arabs pressed in to fight and they have only old Lee Enfields taking German ammunition.  Von Sanders is in command of their whole army on the peninsula and he is a good hand and very ruthless.  He has issued an order that no prisoners are to be taken.  The worst enemy we have got to fight against are the snipers, whose name is legion, and his bravery is magnificent.  Many of them have been found dug in holes with ammunition and provisions for six weeks!  One man had painted himself green all over, and had branches of trees round him and it took a long time to catch him.  His end was swift.

 

Impartial Reporter.  June 10 1915.  ROLL OF HONOUR.  CROOKE.  Killed in action, May 5, 1915, at Gallipoli Peninsula, Dardanelles, Sergeant W.  H.  Crooke, 1st Battalion Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers, and dearly loved son of H. Crooke, Glenwhinney, Derrygonnelly.

 

Impartial Reporter.  June 10 1915.  WORK FOR PRISONERS.  The War Office’s decision to make use of prisoners of war for working on the land has been welcomed with general approval throughout the country. Farmers are already suffering badly from lack of labour, and have been seriously wondering how their various crops are to be harvested at all if the rural exodus to the trenches continues. The German military authorities have from the first pursued the wise policy of getting all the work they can out of their prisoners and it is stated on good authority that the vast majority of the prisoners themselves infinitely prefer the healthy life of a labourer in the land to lounging about in the concentration camps.  He also fully appreciates the advantages of being enabled to earn a little money to purchase the small luxuries which their canteen offers.  Doubtless our German prisoners will view the matter in the same light.  Whatever his many vices, the Teuton is not constitutionally a loafer and he outvies the proverbial Scott in his appreciation of the bawbees.  There will no doubt be many efforts to escape made by the prisoners in the early stages of the experiment.  There should however be little anxiety as to the ultimate result of such attempts.  It is difficult enough for loyal British citizens to leave the country at the present time, and for an alien enemy the task is practically an impossibility.

 

Impartial Reporter.  June 10 1915.  THE GERMANS RAN BEFORE INNISKILLING BAYONETS.  A CHURCHILL MAN’S AWFUL EXPERIENCE.  FOUR DAYS WOUNDED ON THE BATTLEFIELD.  Sergeant James Hassard, one of two sons of Mr. Hugh Hassard, Whiterock, Churchhill, County Fermanagh, serving in France in a letter home to his parents gives an account of a night encounter with the Huns and how after he was wounded lay helpless on the battlefield for over four days till found by Indian stretcher bearers.  Sergeant Hassard is in of the 2nd Inniskillings, and says that on Saturday, May 15, the Battalion got the order to take the first line of German trenches at all costs.  The attack was made by night and they moved off at 10.30 p.m.  We moved out in the open in front of our own trenches and took up the position in three lines.  I was in the front line and at 10.30 p.m. we got the order: ‘fixed bayonets.’  ‘Advance’ an order which every man seemed eager for.  We had about 350 yards to go till we reached the Huns’ trenches. No doubt, they did let us have it with machine gun and rifle and also shell fire.  All of a sudden as we were about 20 yards from the trench it stopped then we rushed, but all the Germans were gone.  So we got the position quite easily.  Then the Germans started and shelled us for all they were worth.  It must have been a about 11.45 p.m. that I got hit.  I was struck by the nose of a shell and I thought it was the Kaiser that hit me with a sledgehammer.  On that spot I fell and there I lay till early on Thursday morning when four Indians carried me to the dressing station, and O, what a relief it was!  It had rained nearly all the time but I was in no way  downhearted as I knew God would send somebody to take me to safety.

 

Fermanagh Herald June 12th. 1915.  COMING VICTORY IN THE DARDANELLES SAYS MR. CHURCHILL.  Addressing a non-party meeting of his constituents at Dundee, Mr. Winston Churchill spoke in a very optimistic vein.  In a reference to the Dardanelles he said we were separated only a few miles from a victory such as this war had not yet seen.  Reviewing the work of the late Liberal Government, Mr. Churchill paid a great tribute to Lord Haldane, than whom, he said, no more sincere patriot had ever served the Crown.  He added that he was sure that conscription was not necessary, and referring to the new national government he said that what the nation required of it was action.

 

Fermanagh Times June 17th, 1915.  MOTOR ACCIDENT AT CLONES.  On Sunday a Gaelic football match was held at Clones, and a large number of people came to the town by motors and bicycles.  A number of cyclists were riding abreast of from the direction of Newtownbutler, and a motor was approaching from behind.  One of the cyclists named John Murphy aged 27 of Knocknacreeve, Kinawley, Co., Fermanagh, in attempting to get out of the way of the motor, was knocked down and before the car could be stopped it caught him and dragged him along for some distance.  He sustained rather serious injuries to the head, ribs, and legs, and was at once conveyed in the car to Clones Infirmary, and medically attended to.

 

Fermanagh Times June 17th, 1915.  THE CAT AND MOUSE ACT.  Mr. Sheehy Skeffington who was sentenced to six months imprisonment on Wednesday last under the Defence of the Realm Act for an anti-recruiting speech at Beresford Place, was released from Mountjoy Prison on Tuesday evening.  Mr. Skeffington had gone on hunger strike from the date of his committal.

 

Fermanagh Times June 17th, 1915.  FIRE AT BUNDORAN JUNCTION.  Bernard McManus, signalman at the station, discovered that the fire had broken out in two small houses immediately behind the main building about midnight on Thursday last.  One of these contained the plants for generating the Acetylene Gas used on the premises, and the other was a tool and lumber room.  All possible efforts were made by Mr. George Bell, stationmaster, and other willing workers to extinguish the flames, but owing to the inflammable nature of the articles in the houses – coal, paints, oils, etc.  all they could do was to confine the fire to the place of the outbreak.  The damage is estimated at over 100 pounds.  The Trillick Constabulary investigated the occurrences, but could find no clue as to the origin of the fire.

 

Fermanagh Times June 17th, 1915.  OUTRAGE AT AUGHER.  A dastardly act was perpetrated by some evilly-disposed individuals at Augher on the occasion of the Methodist Excursion last week.  A large number of cyclists accompanied the party from Fivemiletown and Brookeborough and store their bicycles in Mr. Johnson’s yard.  And on going for them in the evening it was discovered that the tyres on 35 of them had been hacked and cut up by some sharp instrument in an atrocious manner, patches being actually cut out of tyres and tubes in some instances, leaving the machines quite unfit for use.  The matter was officially reported to the police and it is likely more will be heard of it.

 

Fermanagh Times June 17th, 1915.  CLONES MAN GASSED.  Private Francis Cooke, Royal Irish Fusiliers, a native of Clones, is in hospital in France in a very serious condition from the effects of having inhaled the poisonous gas fumes of the Germans in a recent engagement.

 

Fermanagh Times June 17th, 1915.  WAR NEWS.  Mrs. John Boyle, Maguiresbridge, has received for their information from the War Office to the effect that her son, Lance-Corporal E.  Boyle, 1st Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers, previously reported wounded, has died from the effect of his wounds, received in action in the Dardanelles on 14th of May.  Lance-Corporal Boyle was 24 years of age and had eight years of service in the Inniskillings.

Mrs. Sarah Camping, Queen Street, Enniskillen, has, we are informed, received word that her brother-in-law, Private Arnold Campling, Royal Enniskillen Fusiliers has been killed in action in the Dardanelles.  Deceased was well known in Enniskillen before joining the army.  When his body was picked up a postcard addressed to Mrs. Campling was found in one of his pockets.  The Captain under whom he served has written, paying a high tribute to the deceased fine soldierly qualities.

Mrs. Shaw, New Road, Enniskillen, has received a letter from the front informing her of the circumstances of her husband’s death in action. The letter which was written by Sergeant F.  Hodd, “C” Company Royal Irish Fusiliers, contains the following: – “I was the next man to him at the time he was killed.  It was on the 25th of April, where we were attacking the Germans, and we were under a very heavy fire, when he was hit. The bullet passed through his forehead death being instantaneous.  I can vouch for this, for as soon as he was hit I went to render any assistance I could, but he was dead.  I have known your husband since he came out here, and I can say that he was a man of whom his country should be very proud as he was absolutely fearless, and every man in “C” company with myself, join in sending our sympathy to you.

With the departure of the 12th battalion Enniskillen Barracks is now empty.  They have gone to Finner Camp, Bundoran on Wednesday last.  The Battalion, which is now 800 strong has been stationed in Enniskillen since its inauguration some months ago.  They left in two detachments, one by special train at 10.20 o’clock and the other by a special at 11.00 and on their march through the town from the Main Barrack to the Railway Station, each detachment was headed by the Battalion’s fife and drum band.  Although hastily formed they nevertheless were a surprisingly competent body of musicians.

Will the resolution passed by the Fermanagh Recruiting Committee in regard to opening the Ulster Division to all denominations help or retard enlistment for that military body?

What did Mr. W.  J.  Brown really mean when at the annual meeting of the Enniskillen Board of Guardians he declared that the war had been caused by the idolatry of the nations professing Christianity?

 

Fermanagh Times June 17th, 1915.  The things people wish to know.  Will grocers throughout Fermanagh reduce the price of flour now that there has been such a substantial fall in the price of wheat?  And if not why not?

How can butchers in Lisnaskea and other towns sell beef from 20 to 25 per cent cheaper than the butchers in Enniskillen and still make a respectable prophet?

Why he is Fivemiletown so far behind other places in not having a weekly half holiday, a privilege which is now enjoyed by most towns and villages in Ulster?

 

Fermanagh Times June 17th, 1915.  LISNASKEA GUARDIANS.  DEATH OF A CHILD.  EXPLANATION BY NURSE.  The Master, Mister P. Lunny, reported that an inmate named Rose Lowry give birth to a child on the 6th inst. The child died about 5 ½ hours after birth without having been baptised.  The coroner was not communicated with.  The Chairman said it was a horrible state of affairs to let a child die without having been baptised.  Mister T. Molloy said this child may have received a private baptism which has the same spiritual effect when the circumstances of the case render it necessary.  Mr. Burns said it was a very serious matter.  The chairman stated that it was a terrible state of affairs in the 20th century.  Miss McCusker, temporary nurse, was brought before the Board, and when the Master’s report had been read for her, she stated that both the mother and the child were healthy and not very ill.  The child was not a delicate child.  The maid and herself were up with the mother and child about 4.45 o’clock, and at that time they were all right.  She was back again about 5.00, and the mother in the meantime had fallen asleep, and the child might have been too near the mother’s breast and got smothered.  It was not quite dead at the time, and she with the assistance of Nurse Bogue gave it a private baptism and the child died.  The chairman thanked Nurse McCusker and said her explanation was very satisfactory.

 

Fermanagh Times June 17th, 1915.  THE AUSTRIAN EMPEROR IN DOTAGE.  A correspondent of a Paris journal, who has recently passed through Austria, says the aged Emperor is now completely in his dotage.  His present state is the result of shock.  During his last visit to a hospital, he was speaking a few kind words to the wounded soldiers, when he saw in one of the beds a major who used to be a member of his household.  He was a terrible sight.  Both legs and both arms had been amputated.  Francis Joseph was horrified.  Was there anything he could do, he asked, and promised to grant any request the poor fellow liked to make.  The major said he had one request to make, and hoped it would be granted.  Asked to name it, he replied – “Have me shot.”  The Emperor, it is said, cried like a child and fainted.  He has never been the same man since.

 

Fermanagh Times June 17th, 1915.  THERE HAS BEEN AN 8 SHILLINGS DROP IN THE PRICE OF WHEAT.  The world abundance is the cause of reduced prices one of the largest dealers in London informed the Daily Mail representative that the drop was the natural result of a fall in the prices in the United States, which he said, govern the world prices.

 

Fermanagh Times June 17th, 1915.  KILLING OUR MEN BY COTTON.  Before this war most people imagined the cotton was used principally for the manufacturers’ of calico and cotton fabrics in Lancashire or the bandaging of wounds in hospitals.  They are gradually coming to understand that cotton is the chief ingredient in modern gunpowder and that the substance with which men are killed in the war of today, the explosive which propels the bullet from the rifle and a high explosive shell from the field gun, is not, as in Napoleon’s time made of charcoal, saltpetre, and sulphur.  It is made chiefly of cotton.  To convert cotton into an explosive it is dipped in nitric acid, washed and dried.  The resultant is gun–cotton.  Unless extreme care is taken in its manufacture, and unless the cotton is pure and clean, there is an early end of the explosives factory and all employed in it.  When properly made, however, it is stable and trustworthy.  The British powder, cordite, his 2/3 composed of gun – cotton and the other third of various ingredients.  The German and Austrian powders are much the same.  Without gun-cotton the German guns and rifles would be silenced.

 

Impartial Reporter.  June 17 1915.  ODDS AND ENDS.  Eighty-three per cent of the Presbyterian ministers in Ireland are total abstainers.  The aged and infirm ministers of the Irish Presbyterian Church can now receive at least £100 a year

The acreage under wheat in Canada is nearly 15 per cent greater than in 1914 owing to the patriotic effort to produce a war crop.

The price of bread has been reduced in Enniskillen by one farthing for the 2lb loaf.

Lady postmen are now going the rounds at Epsom to relieve the men

Lunacy has increased in Westmeath owing to the war to the extent of 10 over the corresponding period of last year.  Some former and older patients say they are afraid of conscription.

School holidays are being granted much before the usual time in Wrexham to allow the children to gather the strawberry crops as the men are in the army.

The Archbishop of Malta has ordered a cessation of bell ringing in the Churches of the Valetta District so as not to disturb the wounded from the Dardanelles.  The Governor has thanked his Grace.  Those who know of Malta’s many church bells will appreciate the Archbishop’s thoughtfulness.

Three hundred butchers in Glasgow have been obliged to close their shops owing to unprofitable trading and the remainder close during dinner hour.  Beef brought £5 14 shillings per hundredweight liveweight last week, or nine shillings more than the famine rates of 40 years ago.

 

Impartial Reporter.  June 17 1915.  INNISKILLINGS REFUSE QUARTER.  GERMANS AND THE BAYONET.  Private John Milligan, Strabane who belongs to the 2nd Battalion Royal Inniskillings writing to a friend from a hospital in Wales confirms the truth of the report that the Germans do not appreciate bayonet charges.  In the engagement in which he was wounded the Inniskillings took some trenches at the point of the bayonet, and so terrific was the slaughter the Germans on their knees appealed for mercy, and begged to be taken prisoner, but the gallant Inniskillings, shouting “Revenge for the Lusitania,” refused to give any quarter, and drove home their charge with decisive effect.  Private Milligan had a narrow escape, and his clothes and straps were torn into ribbons.  He has been at the front since November last and has seen a great deal of fighting.

 

Impartial Reporter.  June 17 1915.  THE 12TH INNISKILLINGS LEAVE FOR FINNER CAMP.  MILITARY AND THE DRINK TRAFFIC. SHEBEENING CARRIED ON.  Yesterday Wednesday morning the 12th Inniskillings under the command of Colonel Leslie,  left Enniskillen.  There were about 800 men on parade, and they went to the station in two parties about 10.00 a.m. to journey to Ballyshannon by two special trains and from there march to Finner Camp.  The battalion has now a corps of drums and the fifes playing the “The girl I left behind me,” “Red, White, and Blue” and other patriotic airs headed the battalion as it marched through the streets.  The drums have been lent by the Enniskillen Unionist flute band and this kind action has been much appreciated by the battalion.

 

Though there have been restrictions as to the sale of liquor to the troops quartered in Enniskillen, certain individuals have evaded by order and in isolated cases men during the day have been set drunk.  This state of affairs has given considerable trouble to the military authorities and caused the departure of the old battalion for it had been intended to keep permanently in Enniskillen or one or perhaps two companies.  Shebeening has been prevalent, and it is notorious that women in some of the houses in Queen Street and this neighbourhood reaped a rich harvest from the sale of beer and cheap whisky which had the effect of converting quiet and peaceful men into troublesome characters. Complaint was made to the police authorities but this had no deterrent effect on the evil traffic.  To show the extent to which some people would go, drink was sold openly in the public street at 3.00 p.m. on a Sunday afternoon!

Regret at the departure of the battalion is general – and it is due to the practice mentioned above that has caused the removal of every man and will delay the return – if the battalion do return under the circumstances that have prevailed in Enniskillen.

 

Impartial Reporter.  June 17 1915.  DEATHS IN ACTION.  Mrs John Boyle, Maguiresbridge has received further information from the War Office to the effect that her son Lance Cpl. E.  Boyle, 1st Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers previously reported wounded, has died from the effects of his wounds received in action in the Dardanelles on the 14th of May.  Lance Corporal Boyle was 24 years of age, and had eight years’ service in the Inniskillings.

Private Francis Harren and Ernest Campling, 1st Battalion Royal Inniskillings are reported killed at the Dardanelles.  Both belong to Enniskillen.

News has been received in Belturbet that Private John McPartland, Inniskilling Fusiliers, only son of Mr. P.  McPartland, Deanery Street, Belturbet has been killed in action.

 

Fermanagh Times June 24th, 1915.  LISBELLAW PETTY SESSIONS.  Terence Conlon, Toneyglass, was summoned by Sergeant Hughes for having been drunk in the Roman Catholic Church, Tempo on the evening of the 27th of May.  The Sergeant said that defendant kept speaking and muttering during prayers, and did not seem to know our realise where he was.  Witness went and sat beside him, but he started to mutter again and witness had to take him out by linking him to the door, where defendant fell and was taken to the barrack.  A fine of 10 shillings and 1s 6d costs or in default a week in prison was ordered.

 

Fermanagh Times June 24th, 1915.  RECRUITING IN DONEGAL.  THE COUNTIES UNPLEASANT PRE-EMINENCE.  His Honour Judge Cooke, K.  C. at the opening of Lifford Crown Sessions on Friday said “You must know that nothing stands between you and your property but the British Fleet to prevent the Germans taken possession of Donegal.  The only reason I mention this is the Donegal has the unpleasant pre-eminence of being the county in Ireland which up to the present from all sections has returned the fewest number of recruits. Of 21,000 men of recruitable age in the county less than 500 have joined the colours since the commencement of the war.  The proportion of recruits to the population is only about a quarter to the proportion in Ireland as a whole. The fact is said that there are 8,500 Nationalist Volunteers and 3,000 Ulster Volunteers in the county of Donegal and of those of military age there have been only 500 recruits. It is up to you to make an effort to induce your sons and labourers of military age to join the colours in defence of their country.

 

Fermanagh Times June 24th, 1915.  FERMANAGH COUNTY COUNCIL.  Mr. R. L. White reported that with reference to the motor licence duty in county Fermanagh the amount at present collected for the year was £261 12 shillings as compared with the sum of £343 4s 6d for 1914 which meant a deficit of at £81 12 shillings.  The number of motorists who paid duty in 1914 was 127. The number paid for the year was 89, showing that at least 38 motor owners in the county have not yet paid duty for the year 1915 Mr. E. M. Archdale said the more of this money that was collected the more that comes back to the county to be utilised for the good of the county. It was a great shame that a lot of motor owners in the county had not yet paid their duty.  There were 89 motor owners short this year, notwithstanding the fact that there were a lot more motors in the county.  He supposed are there would be 50 more in the county instead of 89 short.  He proposed that Mr. White be directed to be to take legal proceedings against motor owners in this county who have failed to pay their motor licence for the year 1915.

 

Fermanagh Times June 24th, 1915.  ENNISKILLEN WORKHOUSE.  The ratepayers of the union will be very much interested indeed in the fact that Enniskillen Workhouse has just now the smallest number of inmates recorded on its books since at any rate 1887.  It is probable that never before have the staff had to administer relief to so few paupers as 97 – the full figure on the books on Tuesday last.  We are not prepared to analyse the cause of this decrease, but we fully welcome it.  The poor we will have always with us, but paupers helpless and homeless would not be the burden they are on the working and self-reliant public were it not for the encouragement they receive in these big demoralising institutions.

 

Fermanagh Times June 24th, 1915.  ANOTHER WAR LOAN.  The Chancellor of the Exchequer said that in spite of the late war loan with other methods of borrowing the time had come when it was necessary for a further loan to be asked for. They proposed that the war loan should be issued at par and should carry interest at 4 ½ per cent.  They proposed also that the lender should be entitled to have his money back by 1945.  It must be borne in mind that the State required not a few millions but many hundreds of millions.

 

Fermanagh Times June 24th, 1915.  THE FESTUBERT BATTLE AND THE CHARGE BY THE INNISKILLINGS.  A graphic description of the charge of the 2nd Battalion Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers at Festubert on the 16th ult. is given by Private R.  Thornton.  Thornton escaped with a bullet wound in his thigh, and in the course of his letter he says:- “I thank God  that I got off so well, as many a gallant Inniskilling fell in that charge never to rise.  I shall never forget that day or rather night.  We were in the frontline trenches under heavy shell and rifle fire.  During the week before and on Saturday afternoon we had a lecture from a company officer as to the coming advance.  After that some of the boys had a sleep.  Then we had tea about 5.00. All the conversation was about the charge, and the boys were as jolly and light-hearted as if it was play, saying what they would give the Germans.  At 8.30 p.m. we went to our trenches, and an hour later we were ordered over the parapet and lay in front of the trench on till 11.30, when we got the order to advance.  We started very slowly so as not to let the Germans know, but had only gone 100 yards when the enemy sent off rockets, but I think they were so much surprised they could hardly think it was us.  They then sent up hundreds, and made the night as clear as day.  They could see us quite plainly, and opened a terrific shell, rifle and machine gun fire.  We began to rush amid this shower of hail and shrapnel, the men falling in dozens.  The King’s Royal Rifles were luckier than we were, meeting with very little opposition.  They gained their first line and started for the second.  The Worcesters, who were beside us, could not advance at all.  Our fellows, shouting and yelling rushed on, but were pushed back.  They came a second time, and by this time we were all mad and angry at our losses, and thinking of nothing rushed the first line of the enemy with bomb and bayonet.  As soon as we gained the first line we rushed off to the second, and had a good deal of fighting to get them out of the second trench.  At one time half the trench was full of Germans and us but we soon cleared it.  After that we started to prepare for a counterattack, but none came during our stay in the trench, and on Sunday night we were relieved.  When we were coming down out of the trenches along the supporting trench it was thick with dead and wounded.  Our stretcher bearers when carrying the wounded back were killed, and the wounded buried alive with the trenches being blown in on top of them.

 

Fermanagh Times June 24th, 1915.  RECRUITING IN FERMANAGH.  A LADIES COMMITTEE IS APPOINTED.  That a meeting of the Joint Fermanagh Recruiting Committee the following ladies were appointed to act on a ladies Committee representing the different districts of the County: – Mrs. E M. Archdale, Riversdale; Mrs. A Collum, Bellevue; Mrs. Archdale, Castle Archdale; Miss Reade, Castletown; Mrs. D’Arcy Irvine, Castle Irvine; Mrs. Irvine, Killadeas; Mrs. Wray, Enniskillen; Mrs. Patten, Ederney; Mrs. Donnelly, Enniskillen; Miss Morris, do; Miss R.  Barton, Waterfoot; Mrs. Stack, Tubrid; Mrs. Naylor,  Belleek Rectory; Mrs. Packenham, Carrickreagh House; Mrs. Mulhern, Enniskillen; Miss Coll; Mrs. Betty, do; Mrs. W.  P.  Maguire, do; Lady Teresa Corry, Castlecoole, Mrs. W.  H.  West, Mullaghmeen, Mrs. W.  Maguire, Ederney; Miss Lee, Irvinestown; Mrs. Cleary, Belleek; Miss Cleary, do; Mrs. Porter–Porter, Belleisle; Miss Porter, do; Mrs. Falls, do; Mrs. Maguire, Munville; Miss Gavin, Lisnaskea; Miss O’Donnell, Brookeborough; Mrs. Taylor, do; Lady Brooke, Colebrooke; Mrs. Richardson, Lisbellaw; Mrs. James Eadie, Lisbellaw;  Miss Ida Henderson, do; Mrs. Crozier, Blacklion; Mrs. Smith, Derrygonnelly; Miss Johnston, Belleek; Miss Arnold, Lisnaskea and Miss King, Enniskillen.

 

Fermanagh Times June 24th, 1915.  THE NATIONAL EGG COLLECTION. CONTRIBUTIONS FROM MAGHERACULMONEY PARISH (KESH).  The parish of Magheraculmoney has so far had done splendidly in connection with the National Egg Collection having already sent the truly gratifying number of 191 dozen (2,292) eggs for the use of our wounded soldiers and sailors.  The first week 42½ dozen were sent, the second week 44½ dozen, and last week the magnificent contribution of 104 dozen was made by the parishioners who also give a sum of £1-13 shillings for the same purpose.

 

Fermanagh Times June 24th, 1915. A PRIEST’S EXTRAORDINARY PROTEST.  THE BURIAL OF LUSITANIA VICTIMS.  Several bodies have been picked up off the Aran Islands, County Galway which is supposed to be those of victims of the Lusitania outrage.  One was that of a lady clothed in expensive garments, and with a wristlet watch.  At the Galway Board of Guardians meeting on Wednesday, Mr. O’Flaherty, R. O., wrote stating that he had the bodies interned in Killeany Graveyard, as far from the other burial ground as space would permit.  The R.O. in his report, added: -Father, Farragher, P. P., says I had no right to bury the bodies in consecrated ground, that he would have to write to the Bishop, and that probably the bodies would have to be exhumed.  I wrote to Father Farragher that I did not know to what denomination they belonged, that I had no other place to bury them in, and an I saw Protestants buried in Inishene Graveyard, and at the new cemetery in Galway.  Mr. Cooke said these unfortunate victims of the Lusitania were human beings, and why should they not be interned as such?  (Hear, hear.)  The Board expressed concurrence with the action of the R. O.

 

Impartial Reporter.  June 24 1915.  EMIGRATION AND CONSCRIPTION.  FARMER’S SONS RUN AWAY.  The rumour that certain to influences are at work to induce young Irishman to emigrate has caused considerable discussion, and correspondents in different parts of the South and West of Ireland give evidence of how general has been the rush of emigration within the past few weeks.  It is said that these young men, mostly farmers’ sons, are running away to avoid military service, and they are described by those who have travelled across the Atlantic with them as being well supplied with money.  These young men belonged to the type associated with Mr. Redmond’s volunteers.  They cry for “Home Rule and ask to be armed, but they rush away from the country because of the prospect of being forced to fight against Prussian militarism.

 

Impartial Reporter.  June 24 1915.  IRISH COWARDS AND THEIR TREATMENT BY SAILORS.  The arrival at New York on board the American liner St. Paul of 300 young men from, Connaught has served to direct attention to the apparently organised efforts being made to induce Irishman to avoid enlistment by transporting them.  During the voyage the sailors forced many of the biggest of the emigrants to march about the decks carrying broom sticks over their shoulders and wearing tin saucepans on their head.  An officer of the ship observed that what puzzled him was where the lads got the money for the passage. They all carried gold. (Ed. A bit of an unlikely story with 300 Irishmen on board.)

 

Impartial Reporter.  June 24 1915.  SOLDIERS FOR THE HAY HARVEST.  The Board of Agriculture announces that it has been informed by the Army Council that in view of the possible shortage of agricultural labour for the harvest furlough will be given at the discretion of the military authorities to a limited number of soldiers of the New Armies and of the Territorial Force for weeks in the hay harvest as circumstances may permit. The furlough granted to each soldier will last only for such number of days, not exceeding 14, as he is actually required for hay making.  The employment of soldiers in the hay harvest will be subject to the following conditions: – 1. That suitable labour cannot be obtained in the locality.  2. That the farmer will undertake to pay each soldier sent at his request (a) 4 shillings a day if the soldier provides his own board and lodgings or (b) half a crown if board and lodgings is provided by the farmer. 3. That the farmer would provide conveyance to and from the nearest railway station.  No charge would be made to the farmer for railway travelling expenses.  Every endeavour will be made to ensure that the men released have been accustomed to farm work, but no guarantee to this effect can be given.  These arrangements do not apply to the corn harvest.  The farmers’ applications for soldiers for the harvest are to be made to the Labour Exchanges.

 

Impartial Reporter.  June 24 1915. DONEGAL RECRUITING.  AN UNENVIABLE REPUTATION.  In his address to the Grand Jury at the opening of Lifford Crown Sessions on Friday afternoon, Judge Cooke, K. C., said: Donegal has the unpleasant pre-eminence of being the county in Ireland in which up to the present, from all sections, has returned the fewest number of recruits.  That is something for you to consider.  A few moments before I came into court here a return, which led me to make these observations, was put into my hand showing the recruiting in Donegal up to the 1st of April last out of 21,000 men of recruitable age in the county less than 500 have joined the colours since the commencement of the war. The proportion of recruits to the population is only about ¼ of the proportion in Ireland as a whole.

 

Impartial Reporter.  June 24 1915.  BITS AND PIECES.  Skibbereen is shaming other places in the south west of Ireland.  It sent off 120 recruits of last week.

Six girl postmen are acting in New Ross, and one in Tipperary, where there is already a lady bank clerk.

Mr. Schumacher, chairman of the Rand mines, speaking at Johannesburg, said that Germany must be made to pay the cost of the war to the utmost farthing.

Over 85 per cent of the horses treated in hospitals at the front have been returned fit for duty.  This is a great tribute to the hospitals.

The Pope has three nephews serving in the Italian army, the youngest of them only 18 years, and when his mother seemed in doubt as to the wisdom of this course the lad’s uncle, the Pope, said, “Quite right your place is with your friends at the Military Academy in Turin.

 

Impartial Reporter.  June 24 1915.  THE CENTENARY OF WATERLOO.  HOW THE INNISKILLINGS FOUGHT.  Friday was the 100th anniversary of the battle of Waterloo.  It is a curious coincidence that the 6th Inniskilling Dragoons and the 27th Inniskilling Foot – now the 1st Battalion Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers – were the only Irish regiments at Waterloo.  The 27th had marched in very bad weather all the way from Ghent, making a short halt for refreshment in the market place of Brussels, and then on they trudged through the rain and mud for Waterloo.  The 1st battalion of the 27th regiment was then composed of veterans inured to war (says the Sprig of Shillelagh).  They had made the acquaintance of the Mussoos under their choicest generals in Spain.  They had the honour and pleasure of crossing bayonets with them.  It was rough on the Mussoos. Wellington knew the stuff the Inniskillings were made of, and they were assigned what might well be called the post of honour in the centre of the British line, with the other two regiment of Lambert’s Brigade, the 4th and 40th, covering the road which Napoleon’s Army would have to pass in order to reach Brussels.  The 27th took up position early on that Sunday morning, and a hot spot it was.  During the day they were pounded by artillery, then dense columns of steel clad cuirassiers charged them, the earth shaking under their ponderous weight, then another dose of shot and shell from the French batteries, and so on succession they had to stand artillery and cavalry through that long day.  Then Napoleon in person led his Imperial Guards, numbering 12 battalions, and a corps that up to this had never been beaten, and were supposed to be invincible up to within a short distance of the La Haye Sainte.  They were then led on by Ney the bravest of the brave

 

“But on the British hearts were lost

The terrors of the charging host:

For not an eye the storm that viewed

Changed its proud glance of fortitude. “

 

At the close of the day the 27th Regiment lay dead in square; their loss was much heavier than that of any other British regiment engaged.  They nobly held the position they were order to maintain, and not a man flinched.  Their loss after La Haye Sainte had fallen was awful.  A British officer who was an eyewitness of the gallant conduct of the 27th said – “If ever the Sovereign gives them another motto, it should be muzzled to muzzle, for so they fought at Waterloo.”  The strength of the 27th in the morning was 693 – only 218 were able to march of the field.  Total of all ranks killed and wounded was 480.